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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The study is all about the factor responsible for examination malpractice in Nigeria, a case study of the faculty of social sciences, University of Benin was used, and during the process of research the researcher was able to carry out a study which start by saying that examination malpractice exists in secondary school, university under graduate programme etc. most students are conversant with the issues of examination malpractice and the various form of examination malpractices that occurs in our schools. Most students who cheat in competitive examinations like the university matriculation examination (UME) do so because they believe that the exam is a difficult one. If students perceive that the competitive examinations would be difficult, they then develop nervousness before the examinations and do everything possible to pass, including cheating. Also, the reason behind this studies was that I felt it mandatory for everyone within the society at large to be conversant with the syndrome “which is” examination malpractice that has sowed an evil seed in the heart of the individual society, if care is not taken, this syndrome will endanger the citizenry at large.
- Background of the study
One of the greatest threats to the validity of examinations, the authenticity of the certificate issued and the reliability of the products of the Nigerian educational system is the prevalence of examination malpractices. Examination malpractices in Nigeria can be traced to 1914 when the senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This was even before the University of Benin was set up. It can therefore be argued that examination malpractices do not constitute a new phenomenon in Nigeria. Examination malpractice constitute two concepts i.e. examination and malpractice. Examination could be defined as to give somebody a test to see how much he/she knows about a subject while “malpractice means careless or wrongs or illegal behavior”. Therefore, examination malpractices are defined as an illegal act or behavior while sitting for an examination. Examination leakages cheating, impersonation certificate forgery etc, can be classified as examination. Malpractices since any candidate who indulges in any of these does so to have an undue advantage over other candidates. Examination malpractice is a phenomenon that has almost crept into virtually every faced of our society. Right from the primary school to the university level and it is even more in the university these days. Examination malpractice is not peculiar to university of Benin alone; it is a national phenomenon which has reduced the quality of a certificate that is obtainable in the Nigerian educational system. It has been a disturbing development over the years, in which the stake holders in the educational system could not provide a clue to the problem of examination malpractice. It is disheartening to note the wave of malpractices sweeping across the entire educational system. Examination malpractice can be classified as follows: Classified as follows cheating copying from cribs, textbooks, notebooks, swapping of scripts, collusion, and electronic device means of cheating etc. Smuggling of worked scripts into the examination room. Certificate forgery Assault on examination administrators. Examination leakages occur when some candidates have fore knowledge of the contents of the question paper before the examination. If not detected, this fact can render the examination invalid. WAEC’s experiences of this came in 1963, 1967, 1977 and 1981, the last three attracting the attention of the federal government and leading to the set up of the Alexander Sogbetun and Ojo tribunals to investigate the extent of the leakages. The national teacher institute also had a taste of leakage right from its first attempt at conducing the teacher’s grade II examination in 1982. In the article of Odeyemi, an SSS III AFCS Ibadan captioned “How to end examination malpractices in our country”. In the guardian on Sunday 22nd November, 1998 saying exam malpractices come in many different forms U3; illegal purchase of questions papers and answer sheets clandestine sources stealing of proposed examination questions and the use of textbooks or pamphlets during examination periods are all forms of examination malpractices. In some case, candidates form the habit of sitting together in the seating arrangement that will enable the more intelligent one to whisper answers to the less intelligent ones. At times, candidates smuggle in cribs or paper containing answer codes into the examination halls. Thick denim shirts, jeans trousers, tracksuits and lace-up bots are all used to smuggle answers to examination halls. On some occasions, speech codes, cengh and hand signals are used to exchange answers in the examination hall
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The most insurmountable problem facing education in Nigeria as the increase in new method of perpetuating examination malpractice in examination conducted for candidates. In essence, problems facing university examination conduct could be classified into the following:
What is the problem associated with examination malpractice in one hand.
Is the problems of like of underfunding, lack of modern facilities agitation of more salaries by lecturers associated with exam malpractices. What is the level of student commitment to examination malpractice. This problem has been threatening the existence of universities and such a serious diseases need a serious treatment in orders to prevent total collapse of the university system and the certificates that are awarded to her students.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To examine, reasons why examination malpractices are increasing with new and sophisticated tactics emerging on regular basis.
- To highlight the nature of examination malpractice.
- To focus on types of examination malpractice and various effects of examination malpractice would be highlighted through the study.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no reasons why examination malpractices are increasing with new and sophisticated tactics emerging on regular basis.
H1: there are reasons why examination malpractices are increasing with new and sophisticated tactics emerging on regular basis
H02: there is no nature of examination malpractice
H2: there is nature of examination malpractice
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The magnitude of the problem of examination malpractices would mar the degree of acceptability and reliability of certificates awarded by the university. Agony eventually faced by the penalized candidates after 4 years or study period, disappointments received by candidates parents colossal waste of financial resources on such in their future for such candidates in their future academic pursuits made the study significant for study so as to anchor the consequences awaiting the candidates perpetrating such unholy act called examination malpractices during the examinations and to allow possible solution to the problem.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Examination malpractices are generating in nature and practice, well known to everybody in the society. As a result of the popularity, the study would cut across the student of the faculty of social sciences, University of Benin. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education: this can be seen as a life-long process which emanates from one stage then to the final stage. Also some authors believe it to the fact that education can at-times be obtained from formal, informal and non-formal etc. in schooling process.
Malpractice: it means careless or wrong behavior exhibited by pupil.
Examination: this could be traced to the events that occur during schooling, hours, which then is subjected to take the pupil to another stage in class, sometimes; it is awarded for promotion reasons, screening purposes etc.
Cheating: it means when one is copying from textbooks, electronic device etc.
Examination leakages: it occurs when some candidates have fore knowledge of the contents of the questions paper before the examination.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.