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GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING: A TOOL FOR QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF ABUJA MUNICIPAL COUNCIL AREA)

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Why Students Need Guidance & Counselling in Education to Build Their Future

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

As individuals develop through stages of life and educational attainment, they encounter problems, challenges and conflict situations. These people must also establish their own value systems, make choices, set objectives, and strive toward them. None of these would be possible without the development of self-awareness and decision-making abilities, which are not natural but rather require practice. It is therefore necessary to address these issues and to encourage academic achievement and a healthy lifestyle, which calls for individuals and students to participate in guidance and counseling programs. While some authors have attempted to define guidance and counseling individually, the terms are typically used in conjunction to refer to helping people develop self-awareness and direction. Although Ezeji (2021) defines guidance as assistance from one person to another in decision-making, adjustment, and problem-solving, Denga (2022) views guidance as a collection of formalized educational services created by the school to help students develop their own knowledge or self-understanding, which is essential for them to achieve full self-development and self-realization of their potential. However, counseling is defined by Okeke (2021) as a helping relationship in which a counselor and a client work together to achieve appropriate development and maturity, improved functioning, and the capacity to deal with life’s challenges. The counselor uses his professional knowledge and skills to support the client in this work.

According to Eze (2022), counseling can also be defined as an interpersonal relationship in which a professionally trained person (counsellor) uses his professional skills to help a troubled person (counsellee) or people (counsellees) solve their social, vocational, and educational problems. According to Bark (2021), advice and counseling refer to the support that competent and skilled individuals provide to a person of any age to aid them in managing their own life activities, forming their own opinions, coming to their own judgments, and bearing their own burdens. Drawing from the diverse interpretations previously mentioned, the investigator defines counseling as an individual process in which a counselor applies their professional expertise to help a client in a person-to-person setting resolve everyday issues so that the client can grow and function as intended. Since no one is considered to be trouble-free or to have no difficulties at all, general life problems here refers to all parts of the individual’s life, including vocational, social, educational, and personal issues. Guidance and counseling services are offered in order to assist individuals and pupils in overcoming their various problems and anxieties and developing into well-adjusted adults who can not only lead productive lives but also fairly contribute to the growth of society. Gibson (2018) asserts that students who receive guidance and counseling services are more prepared to accept and own the consequences of their decisions, as well as to assume a greater level of responsibility for their actions. Guidance and counseling include various aspects, such as family counseling and counseling, pastoral counseling and counseling, and marriage counseling and counseling. But the researcher’s focus is on advice and counseling in schools. The focus of school guidance and counseling falls into three categories: educational, vocational, and personal-social.

According to Ifelunni (2021), the purpose of educational guidance and counseling is to assist parents and students in developing educational plans that will facilitate the organization of their schoolwork, covering topics such as subject choices, study habits, and test-taking techniques. Ifelunni claims that the arrangements are made so that students gain from their coursework and can thereafter advance to a higher educational level. According to Ifelunni (2021), vocational counseling should help an individual connect appropriate jobs and employment possibilities with his or her history and personal qualities. Ifelunni (2021) states that personal-social counseling addresses issues that students may have that are not related to their studies or careers, such as romantic relationships, extracurricular activities, physical attractiveness, social skills, and relationships within the family and at home. Addressing the needs and concerns of students or learners at various stages of academic or educational growth is the main goal of guidance and counseling in schools. According to Braddock (2018), the goals of guidance and counseling in schools include raising academic success, encouraging good study habits and attitudes, increasing the acquisition and use of conflict resolution skills, and lowering the rate of school leavers. The main goal of a school’s guidance and counseling department is to offer pupils a wide range of human services.

According to Denga (2021), these programs are a “cluster of formalized educational services designed by the school to assist students in achieving the necessary self-knowledge or self-understanding to achieve the fullest potential development and self-realization.” A few of these services are the following: research, information, counseling, placement, orientation, follow-up and evaluation, counseling, student appraisal, and orientation. In order to better understand students, assessment services gather, evaluate, and interpret data about them using both test and non-test instruments. Additionally, it gives significant others and counselors the chance to gain understanding of students’ strengths and flaws. Information services are designed to give students the knowledge they need for their academic, professional, and social lives. These details are crucial because they help students make informed decisions about their lives. A face-to-face meeting between a counselor and students is known as a counseling service. It helps students overcome challenges that stand in the way of their academic, professional, social, and other demands in life. Achievement is when a person meets a specific criteria in a particular field. As a reward for his efforts, it is the completion of a work that brings happiness to the person. According to Okoro (2018), achievement is the ability or state of succeeding. Njoku (2017) has a similar definition, defining achievement as the capacity of an individual to reach his predetermined objective. Student success in the educational system is based on their capacity to fulfill their academic goals there. Academic success is closely related to motivation and is associated with attainment.

According to Ncharam (2015), achieving academic standards and setting acceptable goals is one of the main purposes of education in society. Academic achievement, as defined in this study, is the degree of real accomplishment or proficiency attained in a particular academic domain. One of the most crucial outcomes of school is academic accomplishment, which has long been a source of anxiety for parents, guardians, students, and even the larger community. Among other things, a student’s performance is determined by a variety of elements, including their relationship with peers, homework habits, and parental background. The youngster will be more motivated and succeed in his academic endeavors, which will enable him to move smoothly to the next stage of his education, with the help of a supporting guidance and counseling program.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The choice of a certain vocation, on the other hand, is one of the most essential decisions one takes in their lives, and it is as important as life itself because of the long-term repercussions on the individual. Nigeria’s 6-3-3-4 educational system aimed to create society as needed, with a general focus on balancing society’s technological requirements with its needs. The issues of interpersonal interactions, self-motivation, confidence, and inferiority complex contribute to the growth of other students and may result in school absenteeism. In addition, some children don’t think they can take care of themselves, thus they won’t take help from others. The following problems manifest in the social and emotional requirements of kids and have an impact on their learning environments: Drug addiction is a severe issue that educators, parents, school administrators, and counselors have to address and manage since it is typically challenging to break the habit of drug usage when students deviate from counselor recommendations.Additionally, the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) helps parents and teachers communicate. This can serve as a benchmark for assessing the state’s guidance and counseling program’s advancement. However, the absence of such an association has been endangering the program in schools where it is established because parents often fail to show up for these gatherings when invited, making it difficult for them to understand both their children’s academic and personal struggles. Programs for counseling are essential in preventing problems in education, as well as personal, social, mental, and emotional issues. The program has not been well received by many school administrators, who do not see the benefits of offering professional counseling services.A significant portion of them would prefer to deal with career masters rather than certified counselors while seeking advisory services. Only highly qualified professionals may instruct others in the latest and most advanced professional academic problem-solving techniques. The low attendance rate of students in guidance and counseling sessions in schools that provide these services has led to a notable decline in secondary school students’ academic achievement. This study aims to ascertain the effect of advice and counseling on students’ academic performance due to the aforementioned gap.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine guidance and counseling: A tool for quality enhancement in junior secondary schools in Abuja Municipal Council Area, Specifically, this study intends to ascertain;

  1. The important role of guidance and counseling in secondary schools.
  2. The factors influencing quality enhancement in junior secondary schools in Abuja municipal council Area
  • The factors that influence career choice counseling among secondary school students
  1. The benefit of guidance and counseling in junior secondary Schools in Abuja municipal council Area.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the important role of guidance and counseling in secondary schools?
  2. What are the factors influencing quality enhancement in junior secondary schools in Abuja municipal Council Area?
  • What are the factors that influence career choice counseling among secondary school students?
  1. What are the benefit of guidance and counseling in junior secondary Schools in Abuja municipal council Area?

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