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This study examined the Head-teachers’ Administrative Mechanisms and Primary School Goal Attainment in Etinan Local Government Area. The objective of the study was to examine head-teachers’ administrative mechanisms such as record keeping, decision making, communication, facilities and their relationship with primary schools goal attainment in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Four research questions with four corresponding hypotheses were framed as a guide to the study. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey design in carrying out the study. A total of 255 respondents (15 head-teachers and 240 teachers), which was selected from a population of 498 formed the sample for this study. Two instruments developed by the researcher titles “Head-teachers’ Administrative Mechanism Questionnaire (P.S.L.Q.) and Primary School Goal Attainment Questionnaire (SSGAQ)” were used for data collection. Data generated from the questionnaire were statistically treated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. All the tested hypotheses were rejected, which showed that head-teachers’ administrative mechanism such as record keeping, decision making, communication and facilities maintenance significantly relate to primary schools goal attainment. The study recommended among other things that Head teachers should use administrative mechanisms that are effective in the achievement of the school goals such as record keeping administrative mechanism where every teacher is part of the system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 7
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – 7
1.5 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 8
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 8
1.7 Assumptions of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.8 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – 9
1.9 Limitations of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.10 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 12
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – 15
2.2.1 Concept of Administration – – – – – 15
2.2.2 Administrative Mechanisms of the School Head-teacher – 17
2.2.3 Record Keeping Mechanism and Primary
School Goal Attainment – – – – – – 19
220.127.116.11 Types of School Records – – – – – – 19
18.104.22.168 Purpose of Keeping School Records – – – – 28
22.214.171.124 School Records Management – – – – – 31
126.96.36.199 School Records and Technology Trends– – – – 32
188.8.131.52 Advantages of ICT in School Record Keeping – – – 33
2.2.4 Head Teachers Decision Making Mechanism and
Primary School Goal Attainment – – – – – 34
2.2.5 Communication Mechanism and Primary School
Goal Attainment – – – – – – – 38
2.2.6 Facilities Maintenance Mechanism and Primary
School Goal Attainment – – – – – – 45
184.108.40.206 Types of School Facilities Maintenance – – – 47
2.2.7 Concept of Primary School Goals Attainment – – – 49
2.3 Empirical Studies– – – – – – – – 53
2.4 Summary of the Review – – – – – – 57
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 59
3.2 Area of the Study – – – – – – – 59
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – – 60
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique – – – – – 60
3.5 Instrumentation – – – – – – – 61
3.6 Validation of Instrument – – – – – – 61
3.7 Reliability of Instrument – – – – – – 61
3.8 Methods of Data Collection – – – – – 62
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 62
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION
AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation of Research Questions and Tables – – – 63
4.2 Presentation of Result – – – – – – 66
4.3 Summary of Findings – – – – – – 69
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – 69
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – 72
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 73
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 73
5.4 Suggestions for further Study – – – – – 74
1.1 Background of the Study
The success of any organization is highly rested upon the head, boss or the manager of such an enterprise like business, school or any organization. The administrative impact is desirable in organization to aid easy and maximum success. Leadership is an instrument used in an organization for behavior modification. It determines the goals of an organization and means of accomplishing them. Therefore, leadership in an organization has been seen as a motivator whereby one person who is the head motivates others towards achievement of specific goals of the organization. However, followership is the essence of leadership. In other words, it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader.
The quality of Educational outcome is the product of effective and efficient utilization of human, material, financial and time resources. Of these, the contribution of the human resources particularly the head-teachers and teachers cannot be overemphasized. The head-teachers and teachers are the active agents of production who utilize the other resources and skills in a manner that can produce the desired results. The attitude of principals towards their teaching staff was well articulated by the Federal Government in the National Policy of Education (2004) which states that ‘The success of any system of education is hinged on proper planning, efficient administration. Administration is a function of organization and structure, proprietorship and control, inspection and supervision’. For teachers the policy also states that ‘teachers are the main determinants of the quality of education’. Furthermore, UNESCO (2000) was categorical in stating that, improving the quality of education depends first, on improving the quality of educational administrators and, also improving the status and work conditions of teachers.
Moreover, people follow those perceived to be providing means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs. In this case, we can see that leadership and motivation are closely interconnected. According to Adeyemi (2004) motivation enables us to appreciate better what people want and why they act as they do. In primary school administration, the success of any school to achieve its stated goals or objectives depends on the ability of the Chief Administrator otherwise known as the head-teacher and his mechanisms. Sybil (2006) maintained that effective leadership role provide by the head-teacher will lead to the achievement of the school’s goals and objectives. There is an adage to this, which says “Get the right man in the leadership job and all your problems will be solved”.
Sybil (2006) further stated that the school administrator is a leader of the staff and the pupils of the school. He is expected to be knowledgeable in the area of administration and should be in nature. He should be able to address difficult issues or problems at different point in time. Leadership is concerned with human experience and energy in an organized group and the concept is also of prime importance to administrators because people partake.
Agunwa (2006) identified four mechanisms often used by school head teachers to include, record keeping, decision making, communication and facilities maintenance. According to author record keeping is supportive of the administration, helpful for planning of management functions like human and material resources. It provides a lot of information about the school, enables the administration to take decisions and assess the progress and direction of the school program. Record keeping also assists teachers and pupils to be flourishing to their tasks and work punctiliously towards the accomplishment of educational intention.
Asiyai (2012) asserts that facilities maintenance are essential for sound education of the children. The process of teaching, learning is affected by the quality of available physical facilities such as quality of school buildings, classrooms, provision of furniture, computer lab, library, visual aids and playground. Decision making mechanism according to J. Urwick (1991) it is an important element of administrative leadership. It is an attempt to solve organizational problems. It involves the selection of a course of action from various possibilities. A decision must always be made about who is to do what, how will it be done, when and where it will be done. Decision is a daily function of the leaders because one decision affects the other. Albers (1974), in his article titled “information communication and control,” stated that an effective planning in an organization like school cannot occur without information about alternative strategies and their consequences. The plananer (head teacher) requires information about such environmental forces as products and resources markets, governmental policies, and technological innovation.
According to the author, there is bound to be chaos among staff as well as decline in the maintenance of discipline among staff and pupils since there is no identifiable leader. As opined by Akerele (2007) in case, where the mechanisms of the head-teacher is ineffective, such as record keeping or communication, even the best school programmes, the most adequate resources and the most motivated staff and pupils will be rendered unproductive. Therefore, the importance of good mechanisms in an organization cannot be overemphasized.
As far as the standard of education is concerned in the country a large section of the people strongly believe that it is falling and the value of education depreciating. Different reasons had been given for it. The society blamed schools for mass promotion of pupils and teachers were equally blamed and accused of not doing their work accordingly. Parents are not let out in the blame not paying attention to their children’s academic progress.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers in the primary schools expect their head-teachers to behave in particular ways because of the head-teachers’ statutory administrative positions. The head-teachers on the other hand see themselves as performing their administrative duties in schools as expected of them. However, teacher expected administrative mechanisms of the head-teacher may be different from the actual mechanism or role performance they observe in their head-teacher. Thus, a teacher who does not obtain what he expects from his head-teacher as his academic mentor and supervisors may be unhappy both with the head-teacher and the whole school system. It is with this mind that one wonders what relationship that exists between the expected and the perceived role performance of head-teachers. Head-teachers of primary schools constitute dynamic leaders who influence classroom teachers who are their immediate subordinated in the school management system.
It is noted that in Nigeria, Akwa Ibom State and Etinan Local Government Area in particular, most of the successes or failures in primary school administration or organizational goal attainment depend on these leaders. Hence the achievements of primary schools are dependent on four identifiable mechanisms namely; record keeping, communication, decision making and facilities maintenance mechanisms. It permits initiative, originality and creativity in school work operations and promotes hard work among the subordinates.
Further observation in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, also has shown that teachers appear to be less satisfied with their jobs while the academic activities of pupils is dwindled as is evidenced by occasional truancy, indiscipline, examination malpractice and drifiting away from teaching profession and drop-out (Onwurah, 2000). This premise that this study examines the relationship between mechanisms applied by head-teachers on one hand and attainment of goal by primary school teachers and pupils on the other hand be investigated.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is as follows:
- To examine the relationship between record keeping mechanism and primary school goal attainment.
- To examine the relationship between decision making mechanism and primary school goal attainment.
- To examine the relationship between communication mechanism and primary school goal attainment.
- To examine the relationship between facilities maintenance mechanism and primary school attainment.
1.4 Research Questions
This study sought to answer the following questions:
- How does record keeping mechanism of head-teacher significantly relate to primary school goal attainment?
- How does decision making mechanism of head-teacher significantly relate to primary school goal attainment?
- How does communication mechanism of head-teacher significantly relate to primary school goal attainment?
- How does facilities maintenance mechanism of head-teacher significantly relate to primary school goal attainment?
The following hypotheses will be tested in the course of this study;
- There is no significant relationship between record keeping mechanism of the head-teacher and primary school goal attainment.
- There is no significant relationship between decision making mechanism of the head-teacher and primary school goal attainment.
- There is no significant relationship between communication mechanism of the head-teacher and primary school goal attainment.
- There is no significant relationship between facilities maintenance mechanism of the head-teacher and primary school goal attainment.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of benefit to the government, ministry of education, head-teachers, teachers, parents and future researchers.
Government through the Ministry of Education will see the need to ensure that all head-teachers posted to schools are trained and retrained towards the management of school to ensure effective management. This can only be possible through the knowledge of the findings of this study.
Teachers through the finding of this study will understand the cruciality of human inputs such as head-teacher to school organization and the damage a head-teacher’s bad behavior may do the school organization. Teachers will equally learn to adjust where the head-teacher’s mechanism does not promote the attainment of the desired goals.
The study will enable head-teachers to see the need of adopting effective mechanisms that would help in promoting attainment of goals by the school.
In addition, parents through the findings of this study will ensure and also monitor to see that the head-teacher use the right mechanism that could help the school to achieve its desired goals. Pupils will also know their roles toward the achievement of the school goals and work towards it. The future researchers on similar topic will find this study useful in their literature review.
1.7 Assumptions of the Study
In this study it is assumed that head teachers’ mechanism will not significantly relate to primary school goals attainment.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to the relationship between the head-teachers’ administrative mechanism and primary school goal attainment in Etinan Local Government Area. The head-teacher’s mechanisms considered are the record keeping mechanism, decision making mechanism, communication mechanism and facilities maintenance mechanism. All 15 head-teachers and 483 teachers in all 15 public primary schools in the Local Government Area will be used. This study is also delimited to 2017/2018 academic session.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The study has some limitations. Firstly, as is the case in all non-experimental studies, the researcher cannot completely be sure that the changes in the participants are really caused by the intervention. Secondly, the inequality sample sizes of the head-teachers limited the generalization of the results pertaining to the relationship between head-teachers’ administrative mechanisms and primary school goals attainment in Etinan Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State.
Another limitation is the use of limited head-teachers’ administrative mechanisms and their relationship with primary school goals attainment also limit the generalization of the results and findings. Finally, the study faced the limitation of not controlling the true nature of the respondents’ views.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Administrative Mechanism: In this study, the term refers to management techniques used by head-teachers such as record keeping, decision making, communication and facilities maintenance to achieve the organizational goals.
Record Keeping: This is an art, habit or practice of keeping information or fact in such a way or manner it can be retrieved when needed.
Decision making: This is defined as the selection of a course of action from various possibilities and options. This is also an act of solving organizational problems.
Communication: This is the means of interaction between the head teachers and their staff, pupils and immediate community. This also leads to a good administrative effectiveness of the head teacher, if properly utilized.
Facilities Maintenance: This refers to the physical structures and infrastructure facilities in the school premises such as classroom buildings, offices, libraries, halls, instructional materials room, workshops and equipment used for the achievement of educational goals.
Goals Attainment: This is a situation whereby schools are measured by pupils’ attainment, how many pupils makes grade in writing, reading and mathematics.