Violence in general terms has been a cancerous disease that has continued to eat deep into the fabric of our society. Religious violence has for long hampered growth, unity and development in our society and our country at large. The conflicts had been studied by various scholars in an effort to reconstruct the genesis of the whole issue in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria and Nigeria at large. However it is on the bases that this project reconstruct the history of religious violence as it affect the people and government of Kaduna state from 1987 to 2011. It discuss religious violence, its causes and consequences in Kaduna. The researcher concludes by advancing that within the period of study violence has been a recurring phenomenon in the History of Kaduna and also recommend ways or means through which this violence can be ameliorated.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Religion and Violence in Nigeria
Frequency of violent deaths and their causes
Violent Deaths in 2013 and 2014
Frequencies of Muslim and Christian violent deaths
Beyond frequencies: dimensions of violent deaths Incidents
Islamic group versus Christian group (religious issues)
The Causes of Ethno – Religious Conflicts in Kaduna and Plateau States
The effects of ethno-religious conflicts on development in kaduna and plateau states
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Religious violence has its roots deep in the history of Kaduna State. As a state, Kaduna came into being in 1987 and in the same year religious violence erupted. Historically, Kaduna was part of Northern region in the three (3) regional structures of 1954. Present day Kaduna was the capital of Northern region when Nigeria was restructured into twelve (12) State on 27thMay 1967. It was named North Central State and later changed to Kaduna State in 1976. The old Kaduna had two provinces, Katsina and Zaria. On 23rd September, 1987 the state was split into two, Katsina province became a new state named Katsina state, while Zaria retained the name Kaduna.1 The name Kaduna is derived from the Hausa word “KADA” meaning crocodile, and Kaduna is the plural word for crocodile. Main towns in Kaduna are Kaduna (city capital), Zaria, Kagoro, Kafachan, Kachia and Zonkwa. Kaduna State consist of twenty-three (23) different local government areas and there are:Birnin Gwari, Chikun, Giwa, Igabi, Ikara, Jaba, Jema’a, Kachia, Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Kagarko, Kajuru, Kaura,Kauru, Kubau, Kudan, Lere, Makarfi, Sabon Gari, Sanga, Soba, Zangon Kataf and Zaria Local Government Areas. There are fifty-seven (57) different langue spoken in Kaduna which includes
Acipa in Eastern Birnin Gwari LGA, Amo in Saminaka LGA, Ashe Kachia in LGA, Aten in Jema’a LGA, Atsam in Kachia LGA, Ayu in Jema’a LGA, Bacama in Northeast of Kaduna town, Begbere-Ejar in Kachia LGA, Berom in Jema’a LGA, Bina in Saminaka LGA, Cinda-Regi-Tiyal in Birnin Gwari LGA, Cori in Jema’a LGA, Doka in Kachia LGA, Dungu in Saminaka LGA, Gbagyi in Kachia LGA, Gbari Gbiri-Niragu in Saminaka LGA, Gwandara in Kaduna State, Kachia LGA, Ham in Kachia and Jema’a LGA’s, Hausa Idon in Kachia LGA, Idun in Jema’a LGA, Iku-Gora-Ankwa in Kachia LGA, Ikulu in Kachia LGA, Irigwe in Saminaka LGA, Izere in Jema’a LGA, Jere in Saminaka LGA, Jju in Kachia and Jema’a LGA’s, Kadara in Kachia LGA, Kagoma in Jema’a LGA, Kaivi in Saminaka LGA, Kamantan in Kachia LGA, Kaningkon-Nindem in Jema’a LGA, Kanufi in Jema’a LGA, Kinuku in Saminaka LGA, Kono in Saminaka LGA, Kurama in Saminaka and Ikara LGA’s, Kuturmi in Kachia LGA, Mada in Jema’a LGA, Mala in Saminaka LGA, Nandu-Tari in Jema’a LGA, Ningye in Jema’a LGA, Ninzam in Jema’a LGA, Nkwak in Birnin Gwari LGA, Numana-Nunku-Gwantu-Numbu in Jema’a LGA, Piti in Saminaka LGA, Pongu Small Numbers In Kaduna Town, Ruma in Saminaka LGA, Shamang in Kachia and Jama’a LGAs, Shama-Sambuga in Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA, Sheni in Saminaka LGA, Surubu in Saminaka LGA, Tumi in Saminaka LGA, Tyap in Kachia, Saminaka, and Jema’a LGA’s, Vono in Saminaka LGA, Yeskwa in Jema’a LGA, Zhire in Kachia And Jama’a LGA, but Gbari and Hausa are the major ones.
The issue of religious violence gained ascendancy and became aggravated in Kaduna State after the state was created in 1987. Religious violence in Kaduna State began in 1987 when there was a clash between Muslim and Christian Students during the observation of the annual evangelical week of fellowship of Christian Students (FCS). The violence started at the College of Education in Kafanchan and later spread to Zaria, Kaduna and Katsina.3 Between 1988 and 2011, there were several cases of religious clashes in Kaduna State in which over 50,000 lives were lost. Over one million people were internally displaced and billions of naira lost. The persistence of this crisis ignites scholarly interrogation. This research work therefore reconstructs the history of religious violence in Kaduna State. From 1987 up to 2011 several religious violence occurred in the State, most of these violence emerged from disagreements either between students or youths in the society and later exploded to clashes between Christians and Muslims in the State leading to losses in lives and property.
1.2 Statement of the problem
At the height of religious crisis and conflict, is religious bigotry, biases and prejudices which has resulted in to maiming of various individuals as a result of one religion claiming to be superior, more important than the other. Furthermore, the inability of the government to manage the challenges faced also pose another form of problem. diversity is not the problem parse but the interplay is that of the inability to join each religion under one single and formidable government apart from religious diversity, is also cultural diversity, Therefore, it can be summed up as “religious cultural diversity” posing a fundamental and perennial problem within the state. It is as a result of the above problem or issue that calls for religious dialogue to eradicate such preconceived conceptions and notions and also to put an end to killing and destruction of various properties.
1.3 Aims and objectives
It is of absolute necessity to note that Nigeria is a country of multi-ethnic groups and built on religious pluralism. This research work mainly aims at determining the origin of religious violence in Nigeria. Also, it aims at providing answers to religious bigotry which is a mechanism for violence, conflict and crises. It also aim at explaining what religious conflict is and also enable various adherents of various religions to see the similarities as well as the differences between their faith, enabling them to see that no religion is great or better than the other.
1.4 Limitation and scope
Due to wideness of the country, the research work would not be able to get primary sources from the victims involved in religious conflict. Furthermore, there would be financial constraint which would serve as a limitation. But the researcher shall try as much as possible to gather fact, even when he encounters books that will be detrimental due to their own biases and prejudice.
1.5 Definition of terms
Religion; is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural system, and world views that humanity to an order of existence.
Conflict: A serious incompatibility between two or more opinions, principles, or interests.
Nigeria; A republic in West Africa: members of commonwealth of nations formerly a British colony and protectorate. 356,669 sp. mi.(923,773 sp. km). Capital: Abuja.
Solution; The method or process of solving a problem, or the answer to or disposition of a problem.
Organization of the study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The data used for this study was purely secondary data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.