IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING ON ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS
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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
The need for keeping prompt and accurate record of transaction in the government services of the receipt and disbursement of public fund cannot be over-emphasized. This is why the officers of the Accountant –General of the federation in whose hands this duty falls, has over the years been engaged in the determination of procedure to achieve an optimum effectiveness of these recordings. The management of public fund regimes an appropriate and comprehensive accounting system. This has necessitated the formulation of a number of control measure to ensure accountability and probity right from the budget proposal level to the actual implementation. As government spending grows, there is the need to do more than our tailing spending within appropriate amount as it is entirely possible to expend money without reaping the reward for such scientific. Thus, the need to evaluate the benefits and manage the costs become more essential. This is the enrolment of accounting, and its efficiency and effectiveness manifests the impact on the governed.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the early days, that is before the advent of modernization, the practice of accounting is not well pronounced in our organizations. This is the period when men were considered to display unquestionable character in the management of private and public find, and as such they were to a reasonable extent, honest, transparent and accountable in their dealings. The reason which can be attributed to the virtue of self contentment that characterized the attitude of men. However, after the era of modernization, the desire to get rich quick by every means possible, became the order of the day for both administrators and accountants, and as a result of this development, the incidences of fraud, mismanagement & embezzlement were recorded to a great extent, and as such the practice of accounting was intensified in our organizations, to ensure that the pre-determined goals of the system are achieved to a reasonable extent. In this regards organizations in order to achieve high level of effectiveness, decided to install a competent, reliable, transparent and hones accounting machinery in the organization, this combating the adverse condition known as organizational ineffectiveness the topic which is extensively discussed in this context, using federal pay office, Enugu as a study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The present research topic provides the following research problems:- Firstly, The problem of incompetent accountants to handle the accounting operations of the said organization. Secondly, the problem of incompetent auditors, to audit the state of accounts of the organization. Also, the problem of human negative attitudinal tendencies such as dishonesty, unreliability and fraud, all of which hinders the successful implementation of good accounting operations. More so, the problem of improperly defined organization efficient and timely accounting operations. Finally, the problem of non-futuristic accounting records, due to variations in inflationary deflationary rate and monetary policies.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The present research work intends to achieve the following purposes. Firstly, to emphasize the need for a well organization accounting operations in the actualization of organization’s objectives. Secondly, to educate prospective and present accountants, that the profession (accounting) requires high level of discipline and integrity, which must be compromised for any reason whatsoever. Also, the project want to reveal some of the intricacies that are associated with the accounting practices, which must be clearly understood by accountants in organization’s. Fourthly, the research work equally wants to establish a close relationship between poor accounting operations and decline in profit margin, which often transits into organizational backwardness. Finally, the propose research work wants to use the federal pay office Enugu as a case study in the discussion of the significance of accounting to the overall growth of any organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
During the course of this research work, the following questions were raised and answered:-
1) What is the relationship between accounting, accountants and accounts?
2) To what extent has the present day accountings displayed high level of competency in the accounting profession?
3) What are the role of auditors and managers in ensuring that the accounting records of an organization is not counter feinted?
4) To what extent does organizational policies and procedures affect the efficiency and effectiveness of accounting operations?
5) Are the effort of the standard organization of Nigeria (SON), institute of chartered accountants of Nigeria and the government in ensuring high level of accountability and transparency on the part of accountants in the present dispensation?
1.5 THE SCOPE AND (DELIMITATION) OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research work is the impact of accounting on organization effectiveness. The recent research conducted in our case study as regards this research topic, reveals that it has the features to discuss the above topic extensively. The scope also covers only organizational accounting, it’s features, advantages, limitations and method of operations.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The present research work has the following importance.
i. It has exposed the modern organization to competent accounting practices.
ii. It has create room for individuals to adopt good accounting policies for proper income management
iii. It has also shown that no organization can attain high profit level without effective accounting operations.
iv. The research work also serves as the basis for showcasing the various deficiencies in the accounting practices of most organizations.
v. It has helped to educate the managers of small and medium organizations on the need to adopt accounting practices for sustainable performance in the industrial environment.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
During the course of this research work, the following terms were identified and defined. Accounting, accounting operations, accountants, accounts, organizational growth, administrations, accounting profession, accountability, transparency and profit margin to mention but a few.
i. Accounting: This is the function of keeping the financial records of an organization.
ii. Accounting Operations: This is the set of activities that are carried out in keeping the financial records of a system
iii. Accountants: The professional that are charged with the accounting functions in an organization.
iv. Accounts: This is the financial records of the organization
v. Organizational Growth: This is the progressive performance as recorded in an organization
vi. Administrators: There are policy makers in an organizations and they enforce it’s implementation
vii. Accounting Profession: This is the job of being an accountant
viii. Accountability: The ability to give adequate feed back or accounts of financial transactions in an organization, when charged with such task.
ix. Transparency: The quality of being honest and straight forward in the management of financial resources and also accounting for the same resources.
x. Profit Margin: This is the level of financial award that is accruable to an organization after the accounts of the organization has been balanced.
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