IMPACT OF POLITICAL CONFLICT ON THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN KANAM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, PLATEAU STATE
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The study determined the impact of political conflict on the educational development in kanam local government area, Plateau state. four research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The entire population of 117 business educators in the area was studied without sampling. A structured questionnaire titled “Strategies for improving employability skills” which was validated by three business education experts was used for data collection. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to establish the internal consistency of the items which yielded coefficient index of 0.85 which was deemed reliable for the study. The researchers administered the instrument with the help of three research assistants. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Findings revealed that the respondents rated impact of political conflict on the educational development in kanam local government area, plateau state. The test of hypotheses revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the mean scores of Secondary School teachers on impact of political conflict on the educational development. The study recommended among others that, Government in the Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau State should ensure that there are no favouritism in the disbursement of funds in secondary schools and the appointment of finance officers should not be based in politics, this politics is bound to adversely affect the provision of management of funds in secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions 5
Research Hypotheses 6
Significance of the Study 6
Scope and Limitation of the Study 7
Operational Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO 9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9
Concept of Politics 9
Rationale for Politics in Education 12
Influence of Politics on Secondary Education in Nigeria 12
Concept of Peace 19
Leadership and Political Conflict 20
Government and Political Conflict 22
Cause of Political Conflict 25
Impact of Political Conflict on Education Development 28
Solution to Problems of Political Conflict 33
Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed 34
CHAPTER THREE 36
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 36
Research Design 36
Population for the Study 37
Sample and Sampling Techniques 37
Research Instrument 37
Validation of the Instrument 38
Reliability of the Instrument 38
Procedure for Data Collection 38
Methods of Data Analysis 39
CHAPTER FOUR 40
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 40
Personal Data of Respondents 40
Testing the Hypotheses 47
Discussion of Findings 48
CHAPTER FIVE 50
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50
Background to the Study
For decades, experts in various field such as political scientists, economists, sociologists, geographers, philosophers, anthropologists, statisticians and a host of others have been keenly interested in the study of political conflict. However the type of political menace varies from place to place and from time political conflict experienced by developed countries (Farade, 2018).
However, in most developing states, the problem of political conflict may be a serious bottleneck to development when we deal with question of vicarious poverty of the nation. In another development, some conflict experts argue that conflict is not totally bad, but if it well managed it can bring about positive change to a nation. In this direction, problem of economic development, self-sustained growth, unemployment and underemployment and mostly for the purpose of this research work, the questions of educational ill performance occur as a result of political conflict in Nigeria and in Kanam Local Government Area in particular, Plateau State.
The initial part of the problem of political conflict experienced our in governance today derived from policy adopted during the colonial period, for example the amalgamation of the northern and the southern region took place in 1914 and the adopted of dual system of low operated in the two areas while national activities and western education system were favoured to the northerners, while southern part enjoyed the benefit that or contributed to the political instability in the countries experiences. It is also emanated from the absence of certain required institutional and structure balance (Charles, 2013).
Thus, political conflict or instability can be referred to as political turmoil or it is the inability of a political system to maintain equilibrium or to retain the support of its people for government policies within a stable range. Therefore, research and suggested a possible solution to the likely problems of political conflict as reflected on educational development in Plateau state. According to Adegbite, (2011) there exist different types of conflict in the society. These include: Economic conflict, Religious conflict, Political conflict and Ethnic conflict.
There is popular saying that a hungry man is an angry man. Put differently, it is virtually impossible for a man dispossessed of opportunities or material empowerment to tide rate those he perceived as being responsible for his predicament. Karl Marx, one of the protagonists of “conflict theory” means that there would be no progress or development in any given society without conflict. People have been intolerant when it comes to religious affiliations. If we are desirous of achieving harmony in our day to-day existence, there should be enough room for understanding. Those in position of power should not use their offices to discriminate against the people because of the differences in religious belief. In other words, the people in government and state cannot tell how we ought to think or what ought to believe.
This type of conflict feature prominently amongst age group in community pressure groups, rushing houses, Emir in council and powerful cult. Conflict might arise amongst the members of the age group incase of process helping the needy ones among them. It may also occur where trustees of an age group misappropriate the funds of the group. This is a dilemma of differences. There is always the tendency to view people within the stereotype; as a result of this, people are stigmatized.
Statement of the Problem
The continent of Africa has been highly susceptible to intra and inter-state wars and conflicts. This has prompted the insinuation that Africa is the home of wars and instability. Most pathetic about these conflagrations is that they have defied meaningful solution and their negative impacts have retarded growth and development in Africa, more especially on the education development which is stake at a moment, while an end to them seems obscure.
However, violent conflicts seem to permeate the Nigeria’s socio-political landscape. The 1967-1970 civil wars appear to be the worst of all the conflicts since independence. The real threat to security in Nigeria today may not be a full blown national conflagration but pockets of communal conflicts erupting all over the country. Omoweh and Okanya (2015) argued that one grim reality that Nigeria is grappling with today is the resurgence of communal unrest and its threat to national security. Unfortunately, there are no indications at the moment that policy-makers are decisively committed to dealing with the root causes of community skirmishes and attendant threat to national security. Rather, various security committees set up are more focused on dealing with manifestations of community unrest as against the root causes, leading to administration of wrong remedies. The researcher were able to find out that lack of educational development in our state today had been attributed to a lot of factors, in which political conflict is one of them, thus the problem of this study is to verify the leadership, governance and political conflict the causes of political conflict as well as its impact and prefer a possible solution.
Purpose of the Study
The main broad purpose of this research is to enable research finds out how political instability has retarded the educational development of Nigeria, Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau State in particular. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:
- ascertain the extent to which school management perceive the impact of political conflict on the educational development in Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau State.
- investigate the extent to which school management perceive the impact of political conflict on the educational development on the provision of basic infrastructures and equipment in secondary schools.
- identify the extent to which school management perceive the impact of political conflict on the educational development on administrative task area of school community relations.
- find out the extent to which school management perceive the impact of political conflict on the educational development on the funding of Secondary schools in the area.
The study will attempt to establish answers to the following questions:
- To what extent do school management perceived the impact of politics conflict on the educational development in Kanma Local Government Area?
- To what extent does school management perceive the impact of political conflict on the educational development on the provision of basic infrastructure and equipment?
- To what extent does school management perceive the impact of political conflict on the educational development on the administrative task area of school community relations?
- To what extent do school management perceive impact of political conflict on the educational development on the funding?
Ho1 There is no significant differences in the mean scores of Secondary School teachers on impact of political conflict on the educational development.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Secondary Schools teachers on the extent they perceived impact of political conflict on the educational development on the provision of basic infrastructures and equipment of secondary schools.
Ho3 There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Secondary School teachers on the extent they perceived impact of political conflict on the educational development on school community relation in secondary schools in
Ho4 There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Secondary School teachers on the extent they perceived the impact of political conflict on the educational development on the funding of secondary schools
Significance of the Study
The impact of political conflict on educational development cannot be underestimated in any society. Be that as it may, development seized to exist in society that witness political unrest. This is to say both home and foreign investors will be discouraged to establish in such an area. In the same vein, education as a process of transforming an individual both morally and physically equally fails to take place in an indecent environment. As Akindele (2011) has succinctly put it, “Education is our future and also seen as a wheel base, which can carry any nation to her development centre. So countries around the world have education as a tool for national development. Therefore, the need for it cannot be over-emphasized.”
However, this study would enable the researcher to know about the phenomenon of political crisis and the factors that militate against the conflict in the local government; also the study serves as a guide to the government to promote food democratic governance in a stable atmosphere. In other words, the result of this research if properly implemented is expected to immense value to the educational practitioners because it is poised to help identify some of the problems that stand as impediment to the successful implementation of the educational policy.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is limited to all secondary schools in Kanam Local Government Area, Plateau state.
Operational Definition of Terms
Impact: The force of impression of one thing on another; a significant or major effect.
Education: The act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
Development: It is defined as a process of changes, or a transformation into a better state.
Political Crisis: This can be defined as the lack of orderliness of the political system to maintain equilibrium or retain the support of its people for would also refer to the immediate problems faced by the Government dealing with itself.
Conflict: This is a term used in conflict studies to identify the caused factor of and incidence for possible lasting peaceful settlement. Conflict lexically means clash, contention, confrontation, a battle, or struggle controversy, or quarrel.
Resolution: This is a term used in conflict studies to identify the caused factor of an incidence for possible lasting settlement.
Good Governance: This refers to a system of government based on good leadership, respect for the rule of law and due processes, the accountability of the political leadership to the electorate as well transparency in the operations of government.
READ ALSO: COMMUNAL CONFLICTS AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
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