This study employs survey design in investigating the impact of some demographic variables on academic needs achievement among undergraduate students of the two Nigerian universities: counseling implication. The sample of the study is made of 367 undergraduate students from the two universities constituted the study, out of which 162 are from faculty of Education, 36 from faculty of Pharmacy and 60 from faculty of Law Ahmadu Bello University while 71 are from faculty Education, 14 from faculty of Pharmacy and 24 from faculty Law University of Ibadan drawn through simple random techniques. The Instrument used to collect information was an adopted Academic Needs Achievement Scale by Bakare (1977). Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed that location of university is not a significant factor on academic needs achievement of undergraduate student in favour of Ahmadu Bello university with p value of 0.230 which is greater than alpha value of 0.05 (P =0.230 > alpha= 0.05),gender has no significant impact on the academic needs achievement of undergraduate students in favour of Ahmadu Bello University with p value of 0.809 > alpha value of 0.05(p=0.809> 0.05 ) and the course of study has significant impact on academic needs achievement undergraduate students with F-cal value of 7.618 > F- crit value of 3.021.Base on the findings of this study it was recommended that students should be taught how to learn and develop a good academic needs achievement, that male and female undergraduate students should be encourages to put more efforts and commitment to their study .
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Operational definition of terms||vii|
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of the problem||4|
|1.3||Objectives of the Study||4|
|1.7||Significance of the Study||6|
1.8 Scope and delimitation of the study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
|2.2||Concept of Academic Needs Achievement||8|
|2.3||Concept of Demographic Variable||13|
|2.6||Course of study||16|
|2.7||Measurement of Academic Needs Achievement||18|
|2.9||Academic Achievement Discourse||22|
|2.2.4||Theory of cognitive development by jean piaget||34|
|2.2.5||Factor that influence cognitive development||36|
|2.2.6||Environmental influence on intelligence||37|
|2.2.7||Implication of cognitive theory on education||44|
|2.2.8||Social learning theory of Albert Bandura||44|
|2.2.9||Principle of social learning and personality||50|
|2.3.1||Application of social learning theory on the Nigerian situation||52|
|2.3.2||Hull need theory||53|
|2.3.3||Review Empirical studies||55|
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Techniques||59|
|3.5.1||Validity and reliability||61|
|3.6||Procedure for data collection||61|
|3.7||Procedure for data analysis||62|
|CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION|
|4.2||Analysing Research Questions||63|
|4.3||Testing of hypotheses||66|
|4.4||Summary of major findings||69|
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
|5.5||Suggestion for further studies||75|
|5.6||Limitation of the study||76|
|5.7||Implication for counselling||76|
1.1 Background to the Study
It is expected that any secondary school leaver proceeding to higher institution of learning must have been motivated by one reason or the other and this motivation is usually accompany with the spirit of academic need achievement, base on which a goal will be set
Having been admitted into higher institution, some demographic variables which include location, gender and course of study may influence the internal energy of such student which was earlier directed towards achieving the goal sets and such variables have the capacity to impact positively or otherwise on the academic need achievement of such students (Adeaga&Akinleke-, 2002).
Demographic variables such as location, gender and course of study play a very important role in the academic need achievement of individual student. In fact success and failure depend upon some of these variables which include Income, Location, age, gender that constitute individual personal statistics.
This point was further explained by Adeaga and Akinleke (2002) that many students do perform below expectation in their academic striving due to factors other than low intellectual capacity, stressing that such factors are demographic variables which often result in poor academic performance even among the naturally bright students.
A modern society cannot achieve its aim of economic growth, technical development and cultural achievement without harnessing talent and some demographic variables of its citizens.
One of the major tasks of Education is to help children to develop the skills which promote a lifetime of learning. Educationist and counsellors in Educational setting are often confronted with students who appear to have above average scholastic aptitudes but are very poor in their studies. A recurring question baffling them has been why some students succeed in their study and while others do not. This question is sometimes considered to be closely related to academic need achievement. Efficient learning depends not only on good teaching method but also satisfactory learning procedures. Adeaga and Akinleke (2002) are also of the view that students do badly academically on account of factors other than low intellectual capacity. Tiwan and Basal (1994) mentioned that a child with high academic achievement is likely to be well-treated and well behaved and independent and low achievers are incapable and deprived of employment which may lead to maladjustment in life.
Education is synonymous to knowledge and knowledge is synonymous to high academic need achievement. In the views of Alaba (2004) Education, is the total experiences an individual acquired from the day he/she is born till death. It is crystal clear that all human experiences in life both within the school and outside the school setting constitute Education such as learning to eat, dance.
Education also in its broadest sense may be defined as a process designed to inculcate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to enable individuals to cope effectively with their environment. Its primary purpose is to foster and promote the fullest individual self-realization for all people (Verma, 1990). Therefore to achieve the Educational objectives and ensure effective performances among universities undergraduate there is a need to first and foremost assess the impact of some demographic variables such as the location of schools, gender and the course of study in order to find out their impact on the academic need
One of the facilitators of academic needs achievement may be the course of study an individual student is pursuing. If the course is appropriate to the need of the students he may likely achieve academic laurels, coming out with in flying colours starts by having the right course of study which will in turn motive and ginger such students to set up a target and work towards achieving the set target wrong placement in a course of study very often affects the performance of students in many respect as its affects the zeal and enthusiasm of such individual especially in area of academic needs achievement.
Similarly gender of the students is an important variable that relates to academic needs achievement. The zeal and motivation to achieve academically may differ depending on the sex of the students. Traditionally, though not scientifically proven, there are certain courses that are considered more appropriate to a particular sex than the other. For example nursing service, Home Economics are considered more suitable to females than male. Similarly, engineering, agriculture are for male folk.
The location of an institution is another variable that may influence the setting up of academic needs achievement of a student. It may affect someone’s level of adjustment which will in turn have a repercussion on his/her academic needs achievement, doing so may shade more light on an important strategy for improving students’ performances in schools.
Therefore, this research work would provide a basis for the students and the general public on the impact of some demographic variables on academic needs achievement among university students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Studies have shown that, undergraduate students of higher institutions of learning do perform below expectation. This is sometimes attributed to low intellectual ability which often resulted into failure at any time for a student to recall a pervious learning activity.
The fact is that low intellectual ability may not be the only factor responsible for this in most cases. Some demographic variables such as, location of the school, gender and course of study are sometimes responsible for this. A student whose school is located in rural area may perform differently than his colleague located in the urban area. Similarly the type of course a student is pursuing may influence his needs achievement negatively or positively so also the location in which the institution is sited. Male students may also differ with their female counterparts in setting up academic needs achievement.
Can these factors impact on the academic needs achievement of undergraduate students in the two universities? This is the focus of this research which is geared towards verifying scientifically through empirical study. Hence this study is out to assess the impact of some demographic variables such as institution location, gender and course of study on academic needs achievement among undergraduate students.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of the study:-
- To determine the impact of school location on academic needs achievement of undergraduate students in Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan.
- To ascertain the impact of gender on academic need achievement of undergraduate students in Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan
- To ascertain the impact of course of study on academic needs achievement among Undergraduate Students in Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan
1.4 Research Questions
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions were raised.
- What is the impact of school location on academic needs achievement among undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan?
- What is the impact of gender on the academic needs achievement of undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan?
- What is the impact of course of study on the academic needs achievement of undergraduate students in Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan?
Based on the research questions, the following Null hypotheses guided this study.
- There is no significant difference in the impact of school location on the academic needs achievements of undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan.
- There is no significant difference in the impact of gender on academic needs achievement of undergraduate students in Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan.
- There is no significant difference in the impact of course of study on academic need achievements of undergraduate students in Ahmadu Bello University and university of Ibadan.
1.6 Basic Assumption
- It is assumed that the location of school has impact on academic needs achievement.
- It will also assume that the gender has an impact on academic needs achievement.
- It is assumed that course of study has an impact on academic needs achievement.
1.7 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this study will be of help to teachers, parents, counsellors and the students. The awareness about the impact of some demographic variables on academic needs achievement will assist the teachers in both their choice of teaching and evaluation of the students so that their performance can be improved.
The teachers are the one passing academic information to the students which at the end of the day will appear whether the information passing across to them is understandable or not by means of giving out examination. So if the information passing across is certified to be alright by the authority concerned and yet the students perform low then other means which include liaison will be employed and by so the point at which things is wrong will be detected.
The study will also afford the parents to appreciate the impact of these variables on the academic need achievement of the children. The appreciation would let them be fully aware of their role and expectation in the academic need achievement of their children.
For instance some parents who are well educated are usually aware of the performance of their children and so if what they are expecting to be is not the one they noticed i.e persistence poor performance, then the next question is that are you feeling fine, are you not been provided with your need and so on.
It will also assist the counsellor to fully comprehend the nature of student learning process as an interaction between some demographic variables and academic need achievement of individual students.
It is clear that every student knows his ability academically; it is only that whatever the outcome the blame is on the teacher. For instance if a student who is very good academically in Ibadan moved to Zaria and then perform below expectation then this will called for many reason and base on this a conclusion will be reached.
Finally to the students, the study will afford them the opportunity to be aware of the impact of some demographic variables on their academic need achievement so that they can plan on their own on how to make use of little available resources to achieve their goals.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of the study covered all undergraduate students of Nigeria universities and delimited to undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University and University of Ibadan.
However, the demographic variables consider in the research are location of school, gender and course of study and hence the research aim to finding out the impact of some demographic variables on academic needs achievement among undergraduate students of two Nigerian universities: counselling implication.