INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON ENROLMENT, ATTITUDE AND SKILL ACQUISITION OF STUDENTS IN ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE
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- Background of the study
Few decades back, Okada Air was the most popular Nigerian local airline. The commercial motorcycle transporters were nicknamed after the airline, because they could manoeuvre through the heavy traffic of Lagos, and take passengers to their destinations in a timely manner, in the same way as the airline. The ironic humour of an airline’s name being used for commercial motorcycling, as well as the local familiarity with Okada Air, caused the nickname of Okada to outlive the airline from which it originated, and which many Nigerians no longer even remember. Until about 20 years ago, commercial motorcycling, popularly known as Okada was alien to the South-western part of Nigeria. Taxi cabs and mini buses were the common means of commercial transportation. Though individuals owned motorcycles, they were not used for commercial purposes. With the stringent economic climate, which necessitated the government policy of structural adjustment programme (SAP), many vehicle owners could not replace them, and coupled with the gradual degradation of roads and the need of communities to access non-motorable areas, commercial motorcycling became a necessity. Commercial motorcycling has been accepted by the populace and is gradually being integrated into the urban life of the country. This mode of transportation has continued to enjoy increasing acceptance relative to the other modes (Ogunsanya and Galtima, 1993; Adesanya, 1998; Layode, 1998a,b; Fasakin, 1999). An estimated 25% of total traffic in major roads within South-western Nigeria is represented by commercial motorcycling. One thing that enhances the sustainable operations of the commercial motorcyclist is the relatively high level of daily profits usually posted by operators compared to daily operational cost (Layode, 1998). However, apart from the immediate profits it brings, commercial motorcycling has very little or no impact on the indigenous technological capability building in the country. This is because there is no value addition coming out of this business. On the contrary, it has reduced the quantity of workmanship in technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Nigeria. A few decades ago, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) formed a central part in the development strategies of many developing countries. Due to the emphasis on basic education TVET became marginalised within the educational landscape, and constrained by negative perceptions, which portray TVET as a low status, low quality educational pathway (Asogwa and Diogwu, 2007; Edukugho, 2004; Oranu, 2010). Broadly defined, TVET is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and skills from the world of work (Grunwald et al., 2004a,b; Grunwald et al., 2005). TVET can be defined as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupants in various sectors of economic and social life (UNESCO, 2010). Technical education is the theoretical vocational preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology; compared to vocational education (which focuses on the actual attainment of proficiency in manual skills). Technical education emphasizes the understanding of basic principles of science and mathematics and their practical applications; delivered at (usually) upper secondary and lower tertiary levels to prepare students for occupations that are classified above the skilled crafts but below the scientific or engineering professions (Tripney et al., 2012). Vocational education is organized activities designed to bring about learning as preparation for jobs in designated (manual or practical) trades or occupations usually, non-theoretical and focused on the actual attainment of proficiency in manual skills. It is usually considered part of the formal education system thereby Oluwale et al. 101 falling under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education (Tripney et al., 2012). Vocational training, on the other hand, prepares learners for jobs that are related to a specific trade or occupation (Tripney et al., 2012). Onthe-job training refers to workplace-based training that uses real jobs as a basis for instruction and for practical purposes while apprenticeship training combines on-thejob training for a highly skilled craft or trade (from someone who is already a skilled leader in the field) with academic/theoretical instruction; also called dual-training programmes (Tripney et al., 2012). A key requirement for development in the modern technological age is a population that is well educated and trained in science and technology and capable of being readily mobilized to meet changes in technology (ILO, 2004). The prime example of this is seen in the technological and industrial might of Japan. TVET may be seen both as a vehicle for the development of marketable and entrepreneurial skills and as an engine for development (ILO, 2004, 2005). According to ILO (2004), the total number of young people within 15-29 age group in developing countries increased by 12.4% between 1993 and 2003, while youth employment rose by just 0.6%. This is a serious unemployment situation but unemployment can possibly be reduced by facilitating and promoting job-seekers’ access to the formal and informal labour market through technical and vocational education and training (Bennell, 1999; IIEP, 2006). It is important for Nigeria to include a variety of courses for disciplines such as technical, vocational, professional, agricultural, and so on, in the education curriculum so as to achieve development. To achieve this development, the vast population of Nigeria must contribute to economical growth by participating in all professions through TVET. Therefore, TVET systems play a crucial role in the social and economic development of a nation (Grootings and Nielsen, 2006; King and Palmer, 2006). TVET provides students with “life skills” to become productive entrepreneurs as it engenders creative and innovative ideas, enlarges the economic pie, and increases personal freedom. Most of the expatriate engineers who are being paid millions of dollars to build Nigeria’s roads and bridges are graduates of technical and vocational colleges abroad.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Enrollment into TVE program in tertiary institution in Nigeria has witnessed a steady decline annually for some years now. In addition to the statistics provided in the study on enrollment decline in technology education, it has been reported by the National Bureau of Statistics (Statistics, 2009) that there has been an annual steady drop in enrollment into vocational study in electrical electronics from 355,560 students in year 2004 to 225, 362 in year 2008, and the trend has remained unchanged up till now, most especially in TVE program. It is on this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the influence of gender enrolment attitude and skill acquisition of student in electrical electronics.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of gender enrolment attitude in skill acquisition of students in electrical electronics. But for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following objective;
- To ascertain the influence of gender in enrolment attitude of student in electrical electronics
- To ascertain the impact of gender discrimination in acquiring skills in electrical electronics.
- To ascertain the relationship between vocational education and skill acquisition program
- To ascertain the effect of skill acquisition on the academic performance of the students.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: gender has no significance influence on student attitude to skill acquisition in electrical electronics.
H1: gender has a significant influence on students attitude to skill acquisition in electrical electronics
H02: gender discrimination has no impact on skill acquisition in electrical electronics
H2: gender discrimination has a significant impact on skill acquisition in electrical electronics
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It perceived that at the completion of the study, the findings will be useful to the faculty of engineering as the study seek to expand the frontier of female participation in skill acquisition in electrical electronics in the institutions in Lagos state. The study will also be beneficial to the management of the institutions as the study seek to emphasis on the importance of vocational education and skill acquisition as a driver of understanding electrical electronics. The study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the influence of gender on enrolment attitude and skill acquisition of students in electrical electronics in tertiary institutions in Lagos state. In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some constraint which limited the scope of the study;
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones).
A skill is the ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self–motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.
- ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.
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