INFLUENCE OF MARITAL CONFLICT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MARRIED STUDENTS IN STATE OWN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
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1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The research studied the influence of marital conflict on academic performance of married students in state own tertiary institutions. The population for the study consisted of 200 married student in state owned tertiary institutions. The sample size was 133 representing 100% of the sample population. Data were collected through questionnaire aimed at identifying the various forms of marital conflicts among married student‟, the causes of marital crisis the effects of marital crisis and ascertaining if marital crisis has impact on the academic performance of married student.
- Background of the study
Marriage is a unique commitment in the lives of men and women for which they are expected to enjoy love, happiness, provision, protection, procreation and respect in the society. Burke and weir (1987) noted that one of the most important relationships between a man and woman is marriage. It involves emotional and legal commitment that is very important in adult life. Moreover, selecting a partner and entering into a marital contract is considered both maturational milestone and personal achievement. Therefore, there is no doubt that the choice of marital partner is one of the most important decisions one makes in his/her lifetime. As observed by Okpechi (2012), people marry for many reasons, such as Love, Happiness, Companionship and desire to have children, physical attraction or desire to escape from an unhappy situation. Marriage is a commitment with love and responsibility for peace, happiness and development of strong family relationship. Marriage is a socially legitimate sexual union, which begins with admiration and undertaken with some ideas of permanence. It is assumed with hope for mutual co-existence. It is a contract which spells out the reciprocal rights and obligations between the spouse and future children with expectations, some of the expectations turn to be realistic while others are unrealistic. This is due to complex nature of marriage and each individual is as complex as the universe. Sometimes where these marital expectations are not met stress may occur. Stress is a general term for a number of different but related concepts such as anxiety, frustration, threat, conflict and tension. Accordingly these variables negatively do affect one’s performance (Lazarus & Deimgis 1983). Granster (1995) and Halt (1997) have revealed nine areas of marital stress namely: value, couple growth, communication, conflict resolution, affection, roles co-operation, sex, money and parenthood. In the modern world, both men and women find self-expression in the world of work. In most instances, opportunity for involvement in every career is open to men and women. Teaching at the tertiary institutions is one area that both males and females fit into. Traditionally, the institutions of higher learning have a three fold mission; the acquisition of knowledge or research; the transmission of knowledge or teaching and application of knowledge which is Community Service (Rustia, 1983). Academic role is becoming more diverse and more difficult to identify, as multiple requirements are beyond the demands of traditional teaching, where scientific results, research and service now evolve in classroom and laboratory settings. The roles of the academics involve multiple tasks, responsibilities and expectations. As in any profession, a need for proper planning and scheduling, necessary activities are required to accomplish the task. When the realistic goals are identified, priorities are set, and then the effectiveness of the task can be evaluated. While teaching is the primary role of the academic in the tertiary institution, research, counselling, advising, administering responsibilities further expand the role. Good teaching is the expectation of any institution of higher learning whether it occurs in the classroom or the laboratory; the reputation of being an excellent teacher is one of coveted rewards to be earned in any faculty, once earned, it is re-earned through a continuing series of activities. Teaching include the instruction of undergraduate and graduates, student and instruction includes preparation of instructional materials, delivering of lectures, evaluating and the grading of student progress and timely submission of result. The challenge of teaching is to motivate the students to learn and facilitate learning. The student’s learning should be organized, sequenced and supervised by the instructor so that the new knowledge and skills are consequently gained (Denga, 2002). In academics, males and females are involved but most people loose their sleep over the performance effectiveness of some married female academics. Many people tend to express reservation over role performance effectiveness of married academics (Denga, 2002). Sarwar (1994) stated that there are many aspects of the job that the performance of women academics leaves much to be desired. Some of the areas that people such as scholars, administrators, policy makers tend to express reservation over the effectiveness of female academic include: timely submission of students result; academic publication; project supervision; attendance at conferences and regular lectures attendance. Sarwar (1994) equally stated that in order to move along in their work, a good number of them tend to depend on male colleagues in most cases for assistance while those that marry fellow academics tend to depend on their husbands. Huda, (2003) further stated that as a result of the above mentioned findings, females academics do not appear to be progressing as speedily as their male counterparts in the university. Explaining marriage further, Abercrombie, Hill and Turner (2000, pp. 212-213) view marriage “as a cultural phenomenon which sanctions a more 192or less permanent union between partners, conferring legitimacy on their offspring”. From this definition of marriage, it is glaring that offspring that spring up out of wedlock are not likely to be recognized and may not be given any right in the family. In other words such children are referred to as illegitimate children. In trying to continue to define or give explanation to the meaning of marriage, some scholars have advanced definitions that are highly characterized by the current trends of the society. Accordingly, Samuel-Khusamat (2014, p. 73) marriage is “a sanctioned sexual union between or among living things”. In his view, consideration or reference is made to the fact that nowadays, same – sex marriage exists, and it is alleged that some human beings have sexual relationship with animals. People equally make arranged marriage where the marriage will not produce children. It is based on this that the definition of marriage must be flexible enough to accommodate the contemporary practice or developments. Considering the above, the sanctity of marriage stands tall in the social milieu. Unfortunately, marriage that ought to be honourable, without blemish and hallowed is now commonly associated with disagreements, quarrels, disintegration, general crisis and divorce. Explaining the concept of marital crisis, Hornby (2000) posits that crisis is “a situation where there is great danger or difficulty or uncertainty, when problems must be solved or important decisions reached”. It therefore follows that marital crisis is a situation where there is disagreement, disaffection and the marriage almost at the verge of collapse. In such case, it is either the husband or wife is no longer comfortable with the relationship or both and have reached the point of parting ways or separation. In spite of the above, it is factual that some couples did not acquire western education due to early marriage. The knowledge and skills which they did not acquire from western education have kept them in ignorance hence they are severely disadvantaged in the society. Giving credence to the above, Otti in Onyia (2002) posits that: Education is a “leading out” from something bad and undesirable to something good and desirable, notably ignorance‟ which causes primitive life, poverty, disease, slavery, superstition, pride, indiscipline, bad habits to knowledge which leads to light, civilized life, comfortable and healthy life, freedom, discipline and good habits (p. 45). 193 The understanding of the importance of education has led to the emergence of international policies which nations or countries were mandatorily asked to adopt. Such policies include Education For All (EFA) by the year 2000, and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the year 2015. Furthermore, the tension raised by educational inequality in Nigeria has drawn the attention of the government. According to Kosemani and Okorosaye–Orubite (2002, p. 201) the problem of educational inequality in Nigeria has its origin in historical, social and religious ideologies operative during the colonial period and immediately after it. In order to make for the deficits, Nigerian Government adopted the principle of compensatory education. It is on this premise that various education programmes were established such as Schools of Basic Studies, Women Education, Quota system of Admission, Adult Education, Distance Learning Programmes, which NTI is anchored on, Part Time Studies, Sandwich Programmes etc. The above compensatory education programmes in various dimensions were made to facilitate equality of educational opportunity to all citizens. The above has provided opportunity for married women or man to enroll in education programmes. Ordinarily, a student of whichever programme is not supposed to have or experience any form of shock or problem if he or she must perform well in academics. A student who is married and the marriage is undergoing marital crisis may be shrouded with emotional imbalance which is not good enough for academic endeavor.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Marriage is an important cultural, traditional and religious event in Nigerian society, particularly for women and young girls. Statistics in the CBN (2000) survey show that 86.6 per cent of women in Nigeria are married, while 3.7 per cent are widowed and 5.2 per cent are divorced or separated. In addition, cultural practices distance a huge number of women from higher education. In Nigeria there is a popular saying that states “women‟s education ends in the kitchen”, implying that education is not useful to them; in other words, education is not meant for them. The situation is exacerbated when they get married. At that point the chances of women furthering their education are very slim. This has been one of the major causes of marital conflict and possibly divorce because the spouses are not opportune to know and understand themselves before getting married.
The rate of divorce in our locality is increasing because many get into marriage without been matured enough for it. This again is another factor of marital conflict in the society. In this, they have no experiences that guide them in the marriage institution. It is against this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the influence of marital conflict on student academic performance in higher institutions
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the influence of marital conflict on the academic performance of married student. To aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
- To investigate the effect of marital conflict on the emotional stability of married student
- To ascertain the impact of marital conflict on the reading habit of the student.
- To investigate the relationship between marital conflict and academic performance of the student
- To ascertain the role of marital conflict on student poor academic performance in higher institutions
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: marital conflict does not have any significant effect on the emotional stability of married student
H1: marital conflict does not have a significant effect on the emotional stability of married student
H02: there is no significant relationship between marital conflict and academic performance of the student
H2: there is a significant relationship between marital conflict and academic performance of the student
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study may benefit married academic, school administrators, government and researchers as the result may lead to organizing seminars on marital stress management and general attitude to work in tertiary institutions. The finding will be beneficial because variable that leads to martial stressors were highlighted. The justification of this study lies in the fact that it identified characteristics that could be very effective in coping with work stressors. This is because proper orientation will be injected into our school programmes which will make our present and future married academic women to perform better than before. School administrators may benefit from the research finding as it may make available information, which may be used by them in solving problems related to role performance of married women academics. Government may benefit from the result of the study as this would provide information, which is hoped to be useful in making policies that will motivate her staff for increase productivity in their work. Researchers and writers will benefit from the study as it may provide information, which may assist the researchers and writers that may write or research on the present problem or similar problem in different locations. Equally, the married academic women stand to benefit from the findings of this study, as they will see the needs to adjust positively in their ways of communication and ability to resolve their differences immediately, as these can lead to their psychological health both in their role performance and in their martial lives. Hence this can go a long way in checking stressors arising from marital discord.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the influence of marital conflict on the academic performance of married students in state own tertiary institutions in the cause of the study, there were some factors that militate against the scope of the study;
Bearing in mind the economic state of the nation, it was found difficult in making both ends meet, because of the exorbitant nature of things nowadays in travelling for the collection of data needed for the project.
Looking at the interval between the resumption and vacation of the final semester for the project to be completed, the time given seemed to be short for the collection of required information for better work to be done.
Non-Availability of Material
During this project, it was noticed that the required materials needed for the project are not documented. Those that were documented lacked storage facilities where they can be reached.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Marital: Connected with marriage or with the relationship between a husband and wife.
Conflict: A situation in which people or countries are involved in a serious disagreement ort arguments.
Information: Facts of details about somebody or something.
Divorce: A separation, the ending of a relationship
Society: People in general living together in communities.
Couple Two people who are seen together especially if they are married or in a romantic or sexual relationship.
Marriage: The legal relationship between a husband and a wife
Academic: Connected with education especially studying in school and universities
Performance: How well or badly you do something or work,
Family: A group consisting of one or two parents their children and close relations.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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