This research work investigated the Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation Strategies on Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Four objectives were formulated, these were: to determine the Influence of appraisal of school systems performance on teaching and learning, to examine the Influence of school record assessment on teaching and learning, find out the Influence of assessment of lesson plans and notes on teaching and learning, and to ascertain the Influence of assessment of continuous assessment on teaching and learning in Secondary Schools in FCT Abuja. The objectives were used to formulate four research questions and hypotheses in the study. Related literatures were reviewed. The research was conducted using the descriptive survey research design. The total population of the study was 690 made up of 187 Principals, 315 Quality Assurance Officers, and 188 Department of Policy Implementation Officials. A sample of67 Principals, 113 QAO‟s and 68 DPI officials were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Forty item self-structured questionnaire tagged „‟Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation Strategies on Teaching and Learning Questionnaire‟‟ (IMESTLQ) was used as instrument for collection of data using Likert rating scale of Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed(A), Undecided (U), Disagreed (D), and Strongly Disagreed (SD). The instrument was validated by the supervisors in the Department and the final draft copy was pilot-tested. The result of r=0.84 revealed it was reliable. The mean scores, percentages and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the findings led to retention of all the hypotheses. The study revealed that monitoring and evaluation strategies by the Principals, QAO‟s and DPI officials have great influence on teaching and learning in Secondary Schools in FCT, Abuj. This is as a result of regular quality assurance exercise. Recommendations made include that, Quality Assurance Officers, Department of Policy Implementation and Principals of Schools should intensify efforts on continuous appraisal of school system.Furthermore, ContinuousAssessment of school records by quality assurance officers, DPI and Principals, would enhance teaching and learning in secondary school. As such these activities should be emphasised in the course of school supervision, inspection and monitoring,Assessment of lesson plans and notes should be prime activities of Quality Assurance Officer, DPI and Principals. It should be featured in their instructional supervision process, and Continuous assessment records should feature prominently in the instructional supervision process of Quality Assurance Officers, DPI and Principals of schools. Suggestions for further studies were made for the actualisation of Nigerian educational system.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Table of Contents||vii|
|List of Tables||xi|
|Glossary of Acronyms||xiii|
|Operational Definition of Terms||xiv|
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of the Problem||2|
|1.3||Objectives of the Study||4|
|1.7||Significance of the Study||6|
|1.8||Scope of the Study||6|
|CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE|
|2.3.2||Monitoring of Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools||19|
|2.3.3||Nature of Monitoring||21|
|2.3.4||Functions of Monitoring||22|
|2.3.5||Goals of Monitoring||23|
|2.3.5||Features of Monitoring||25|
|2.3.6||Problems of Monitoring||25|
|2.4.1||Principles of Evaluation||29|
|2.4.2||Types of Evaluation||30|
|2.4.3||Importance of Evaluation||34|
|2.4.4||Purpose of Evaluation||34|
|2.5 Evaluation of Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools||36|
|2.6 Performance Appraisal||38|
|2.6.1||Perspective of Appraisal on Learning||46|
|2.6.2||Perspective of Appraisal on Teaching||48|
|2.7||Assessment of School Record||50|
|2.7.1||Influence of School Records Assessment on Teaching and Learning||50|
|2.7.2||Types of School Records||52|
|2.7.3||Importance of School Records||58|
|2.7.4||Purpose of School Records||58|
|2.8||Influence of Assessment of Lesson Plans/Lesson notes on Teaching|
|and Learning in School||61|
|2.8.1||Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning||63|
|2.8.2||Steps for Preparing a Lesson Plan||63|
|220.127.116.11 Outline Learning Objectives||64|
|18.104.22.168 Develop the Introduction||65|
|22.214.171.124 Plan the Specific Learning Activities||66|
|126.96.36.199 Plan to check for Understanding||66|
|188.8.131.52 Develop a conclusion and Preview||67|
|184.108.40.206 Create a Realistic timeline||67|
|2.8.3||Presenting the Lesson Plan||68|
|220.127.116.11 Reflecting on your Lesson Plan||68|
|2.9||Influence of Continuous Assessment on Teaching and Learning in Schools 69|
|2.9.1 Types of Continuous Assessment||71|
|2.9.2 Characteristics of Continuous Assessment||71|
|2.9.3 Advantages of Continuous Assessment||71|
|2.9.4||Problems of Continuous Assessment||73|
|CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY|
|3.3||Population of the Study||80|
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Technique||81|
|3.5.1||Validity of the Instrument||82|
|3.5.3||Reliability of the Instrument||83|
|3.6||Procedure for Data Collection||83|
|3.7||Methods for Data Analysis||83|
|CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS|
|4.2||Description of Study Variables||84|
|4.3||Answering of Research Questions||86|
|4.5Table of Summary of Hypotheses Testing||97|
|4.6||Summary of Major Findings||97|
|4.7||Discussion of Major Findings||98|
|CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS|
|5.4||Suggestions for Further Studies||105|
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a vital tool for national development which is only attainable through the school system. It produces the human capital that utilizes all other factors of production in order to yield desired output towards nation building. Teaching and learning is a process that can only be efficient when there is an effective mechanism for checks and balances, such as effective monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring has to do with intermittent and careful watch and check on something over a period of time in order to see how it develops, so that one can make necessary changes. Evaluation, on the other hand, has to do with critical assessment of a planned programme so as to ascertain the level of attainment of set goals and objectives. It is a mechanism for providing feedback for students, teachers and policy makers. Through evaluation, diagnosis is made of short falls in the programme so as to draw up corrective measures to improve on it. Monitoring and evaluation, therefore, is a veritable tool through which the school system can be highly improved. It is through this medium that school supervisors and inspectors otherwise known as quality assurance officers, ensure that classroom instruction are improved because teachers are made to be more alive towards their responsibilities. Thus, enhancing on their competencies and make them more accountable. The essence of monitoring and supervision is basically to ensure day to day effective implementation of curriculum in our schools. Monitoring and evaluation adopts varying strategies in order to achieve the objectives it is purported to achieve, amongst which are: regular appraisal of the school system through quality assurance inspection, school records assessment, ensuring that lesson notes and plans are scrutinised before lesson delivery, use of continuous assessment for students to ascertain their level of performance, annual performance assessment of teachers as a yardstick for promotion from one grade level to another. In the Federal Capital Territory – Abuja, monitoring and evaluation unit of the
Federal Capital Development Authority Education Secretariat was specifically established in conjunction with the Department of Policy Implementation (DPI) to perform the functions of quality assurance supervision and also appraise the school‟s system generally (Secondary Schools in FCT).
The monitoring and evaluation and the DPI unit of the FCDA Education Secretariat perform same function as the former inspectorate division. However, despite efforts to correct anomalies with regards to the quality of teaching and learning in FCT schools, through the establishment of monitoring and evaluation unit, much seemed to be desired. Performances of students in internal and external examinations are not very impressive and teachers‟ productivity is dwindling. This calls for the need to try to correct the situation before it completely gets out of hand. This is what prompted this study. Thus, the study „Influence of monitoring and evaluation strategies on teaching and learning in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja‟ is an attempt to closely investigate how monitoring and evaluation influences teaching and learning in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. This is with a view to provide information that would further enhance role performance of monitoring and evaluation and subsequently facilitate effective teaching and learning in FCT secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, Nigeria has witnessed with pain and anguish, series of disheartening images emerging from its educational system. The students‟ educational performance has been on the declining plane (Olaofe, 2005). The second half of 1950s to the late 70s can be described as the golden age of Nigeria educational development (Ojo, 1996). The standard of education at all levels of the country‟s educational system was relatively high. However, the same cannot be said today.
The changes seem to have started very gradually from 70s, worsened in the 80s and have now reached an alarming proportion. The number of candidates registering for WAEC/SSCE has increased geometrically while the number of such candidates who pass with 5 credits and above including Mathematics and English language has invariably declined (Inuwa, 2007).
Central Bank of Nigeria (1995) summarised the causes of these` marked decline in the educational performance to include shortage of qualified teachers, inadequate financial and infrastructural facilities, deteriorating moral values in the society, including the government and the school misplaced priority as a result of inadequate monitoring and evaluation of the system.
In the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) there are various institutions charged with the monitoring and evaluation of educational system. These include those officers in the Department of Policy Implementation (DPI), those in the Quality Assurance Unit and the principals of secondary schools, in the area. A cross examination of those educational quality control shows that, they all have common objectives: to inspect schools and their records such as lesson notes, curriculum content to ensure quality of teaching/ learning and promote better educational performance in our secondary schools.
How has the efforts of these monitoring officers influenced the performance of the teachers in FCT in terms of teaching/learning? Are the various school records such as lesson notes, diaries and curriculum assessment effectively monitored and appropriately kept?
This scenario has made many Nigerians particularly the stakeholders feel concerned about the state of the education system. It is against this background that the researcher ventured into conducting this study on the influence of monitoring and evaluation strategies on teaching and learning in Senior Secondary Schools in FCT. This is to enable those involved in the educational delivery services find the adequacy and other wise of the
inspectors, school records, lesson notes/plans, continuous assessment and their influence on teaching and learning.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- to determine the influence of appraisal of school systems performance on teaching and learning in Secondary Schools of FCT Abuja;
- to examine the influence of school record assessment on teaching and learning in Secondary Schools of FCT Abuja;
- to find out the influence of assessment of lesson plans and notes on teaching and learning in Secondary Schools in FCT Abuja; and
- to ascertain the influence of continuous assessment on teaching and learning in Secondary Schools in FCT Abuja.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher attempted to find answers to the following questions:
- In what ways does appraisal of school system influence teaching and learning in secondary schools of FCT Abuja?
- What are the influence of school records assessment on teaching and learning in secondary schools of FCT Abuja?
- To what extent does assessment of lesson plans and notes influence teaching and learning in secondary schools of FCT Abuja?
- How does continuous assessment influence teaching and learning in secondary schools of FCT Abuja?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were postulated and tested:
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of appraisal of school system on teaching and learning in secondary schools, FCT Abuja.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of assessment of school records on teaching and learning in secondary schools, FCT Abuja.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of assessment of lesson plans/notes on teaching and learning in secondary schools, FCT Abuja.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of continuous assessment on teaching and learning in secondary schools of FCT Abuja.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This study was conducted on the basis that:
- Monitoring and evaluation are vital components of school and educational system for high performance in secondary schools of FCT Abuja.
- Monitoring and evaluations are vital components of school and educational system in terms of school record assessment in secondary schools of FCT Abuja
- Monitoring and evaluation are vital components of school and educational system in terms of the assessment of lesson plans and notes in secondary schools of FCT Abuja
- Monitoring and evaluation are vital components of school and educational system in terms of continuous assessment in secondary schools of FCT Abuja.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is an attempt to examine the influence of monitoring and evaluation in teaching and learning in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. It will go a long way in providing information that will be utilized by an array of personalities such as officials of department of policy and implementation, quality assurance officers and principals of secondary schools. The study will provide information that will assist planners and administrators in the decision making process, particularly as it pertains to recruitment, posting of staff to take charge of monitoring and evaluation in respective secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory. The study will help them to see areas of lapses in relation to monitoring and evaluation processes in secondary schools. The study will provide feedback mechanism to officials of DPI and QAO on how they fare in their monitoring and evaluation activities. It will provide the principals with necessary information that will enable them fortify their position towards effective monitoring and evaluation in their respective schools.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is on the influence of monitoring and evaluation on teaching and learning in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. It attempted to find out whether or not monitoring and evaluation have influence on teaching and learning in secondary schools of FCT. The study involved school administrators (Principals), Officers of Department of Policy and Implementation and Quality Assurance Officers of FCT Abuja.