INFLUENCE OF PARENTS SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YENOGOA BAYELSA STATE
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Many years ago, in Nigerian education system intelligence was thought to be the sole determinant of academic achievement of students but nowadays, emphasis is on parent socio-economic status which greatly affects student educational achievement, educational process take place either formally or informally. Its benefits to individuals and society include economic and social development. From the economic point of view, education is regarded both as consumption and investment but only few peoples understand. Higher academic performance could be traced to active parental influence and participation in the student aspects. These influences includes togetherness of parents, parent involvement, profession, interest in education, learning materials at home, family size, stability, background, social stratification and socio-economic status of parents which consider to be a major factor in determining the academic achievement of students. If family are involve or participate in the child education in positive ways, so many noticeable changes will be observed which can be overt or covert, these are attitude, behavior, test score, attendance records, rate of graduations and high number of enrollment in higher education.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
The relevance of education in the upbringing of children cannot be overemphasized. Since the children of today constitutes the leaders of tomorrow, there is the need for every society to educate its children as this will contribute to the overall growth and development, thereby reducing the rate of crime and illiteracy in the society. For this is to make manifest, certain things should be inculcated in the individual such as skills, habits, attitude, moral values and prohibits disapproved ones. There should be a combination of formal and informal education given to them in order for them to make a constructive development of the society and themselves.
The interest of educators is well pronounced as to what influence the socio-economic status of parents have on their behaviour and learning ability. It is believed that if such influence exists, it should vary widely according to the sophistication of the learning contingencies provided by such factor.
But what we see around these days, nothing but nonchalant attitudes of the parents towards their children education. This is done in various ways, such as parents no longer stay at home to see after the affairs of their children, simply because of the guests by for the means of survival. Due to the fact that these children are not properly cared for, some of them grow up to create problems for the family and at times to the society entirely. This is simply from their unwillingness towards the educational pursuit. Also academic performance depending on the availability of learning materials or facilities, funds and otherwise in situation whereby students from school A perform better in terms of academic than school B, students lie on the above mentioned problems. So without parents not being ready to train their children, their performance in school might be discouraging due to the theory of individual differences. Even when some are being cared for properly, you discover that they still not cope with the system thereby leading to their failure or poor academic performance.
The home is viewed as one of the factors that cause poor performance of students in secondary schools. The problems of why children achieve of fail to achieve in school has always been of interest to philosophers. The home background of students, physical condition of home, genetic and endowment, poor methodology of teacher have been put forth and possible answer and has received a great deal of attention. Socio-economic background is one of the greatest factors that influence secondary school students.
Education not only provides knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering right attitude and habits. According to Muhammed and Muhammed (2010) they are of the opinion that, cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to another through Education. The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents. This is congruent with the common assertion by sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio-economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Whatsoever affect the developmental stage of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parental status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so too does the nutrition of her young children “Parents of different occupational classes often have different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every families, rather they influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes.” (Rothestein, 2004). In line with the above assertion, Hill et al. (2004) had also argued that socio-economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete with their counterparts from high socio-economic background under the same academic environment. Moreover, Smith, Fagan and Ulvund (2002) had asserted that significant predictor of intellectual performance at age of 8 years included parental socio-economic status (SES). In the same vein, other researchers had posited that parental SES could affect school children as to bring about flexibility to adjustment to the different school schedules (Guerin et al., 2001). The same view is shared by Machebe (2012), in her research, concluded that, parental socio-economic status could influence academic performance of their children at school. In a previous local finding in Nigeria, Oni (2007) and Omoegun (2007) had averred that there is significant difference between the rates of deviant behavior among students from high and low socio-economic statuses. The health status of the children which could also be traceable to parental socio-economic background can be another factor that can affect the academic performance of the students, Adewale (2002) had reported that in a rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and health problems are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered. This assertion is again hinged on nature of parental socio-economic background. Moreover, Eze (1996) had opined that when a child get proper nutrition, health care, stimulation during pre-school years, the ability to interact with and take optimal advantage of the full complement of resources offered by a formal learning environment is enhanced. Educational activities are geared towards ensuring that students achieve mastery of educational objectives. In school , the extent to which these objectives have been achieved, is determined by their level of peer pressure, time management as students’ success are reflected in their academic performance. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of adolescents Allen (2005). Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature. A peer could be any one you look up to in behaviour or someone who you would think is equal to your age or ability (Hardcastle, 2002). On the other hand, the term “pressure” implies the process that influence people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do. According to Hartney, (2011) peer pressure refers to the influences that peers can have on each other. Peer pressure is emotional or mental forces from people belonging to the same social group (such as age, grade or status) to act or behave in a manner similar to themselves (Weinfied 2010). Jones, (2010) defined peer pressure as the ability of people from the same social rank or age to influence another of same age, bracket peer pressure is usually associated with teens although its influence is not confined to teenagers alone.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Socio economic status is relevant to all realms of behavioral and social sciences. A family’s socioeconomic status is based on family income, parental educational level, social contacts within the groups association and the community perception of the family). Education does not only provide knowledge and skills needed for life but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering the right attitude and habits. Cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to the next through education. Education principally reflects a social process and implies social framework for development, whether societal or individually. Since the learning process works on a lot of possibilities, the educational goals should be suggestive and flexible to incorporate revision in order to meet the requirement of society and of the child who lives and grows in it, in retrospect to the original purpose of education, parental socio-economic status has in most cases influence the student behavior and attitude towards education. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of parental socio-economic status on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of parents socio-economic background on student performance in senior secondary schools in Yenogoa; but to aid the completion of the study, the following sub-objective is put forward by the researcher to be accomplished in cause of the study;
- To ascertain the effect of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic performance
- To investigate the impact of delinquent behavior and academic performance of students
- To ascertain the relationship between the socio-economic status of parent and student academic performance
- To proffer suggested solution to the identified problems above
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher
H0: parental socio-economic status has on effect on students’ academic performance
H1: parental socio-economic status has effect on students’ academic performance
H02: there is no significant relationship between socio-economic status of parent and student delinquent behavior
H2: there is a significant relationship between socio-economic status of parent and student delinquent behavior
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
At the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of schools as the study seek to enumerate the influence of parental socio-economic status on the behavior of secondary school students, the study will also be of great importance to parents of these wards as the study seek to enumerate the role parent socio-economic status play on the delinquent behavior of the student. The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic, finally the study will be of importance to student teachers and the general public as the study will add to the pool of literature already available.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the effect of parental socio-economic status on the delinquent behavior of students in Idemili south local government. But in the cause of the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’ socio-economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
A juvenile delinquent, often shortened as delinquent is a young person (under 18) who fails to do that which is required by law; see juvenile delinquency.
Behavior or behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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