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This study is a descriptive survey which examine the causes and counselling strategies that can remedy insecurity and kidnapping in Nigeria and Anambra State in Particular. Three research questions were answered and one null hypothesis was tested. The researcher designed an instrument which consisted of 21 items. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings revealed forms of insecurity in Anambra State to include among others robbery; bag snatching, burglary and kidnapping. Also, the findings indicated unemployment, drug abuse, poverty, and quest for fast money among others as the major causes of insecurity and kidnapping. The counselling strategies that could help to remedy insecurity and kidnapping were identified to include cognitive restructuring, community and on-line counselling. The study recommended that jobs be created for youths to reduce unemployment and poverty that were identified as part of the causes of insecurity and kidnapping. Also, that tertiary institutions should organize group counsellingwithin and outside the campuses, so as to alert youths of the consequences of engaging in acts leading to insecurity and kidnapping.




In the early traditional Nigeria society, human sacrifice perpetuated kidnapping. Ugwuoke (2010: 197) rightly asserts that individuals were kidnapped for ritual or social reasons. The African traditional worshipers solely believed in sacrificing to appease the gods. The sacrifice may transcend animal sacrifice, and the priest could be inspired by the gods to order for human beings; to accomplish this kind of sacrifice, the required person could be kidnapped and killed in a sacrificial procedure. Ugwuoke explained that insecurity and kidnappingwas mainly for the purpose of sacrifice either to appease the gods or for the burial of a prominent chief or warrior. Precisely, to carry out a successful burial of important citizen like chiefs and prominent warriors required human head. Hence, warriors engaged themselves in search of victims to be kidnapped. Besides Nwadiorah and Nkwocha (2011: 3) observed that the act of insecurity and kidnapping increased in Nigeria after the Nigerian civil was in 1970 which exposed many youths with military experience to some criminality. The above account reveals that insecurity and kidnapping is very old in the history of man as it is also recorded in section 364 of the Nigeria Criminal Code.

Though insecurity and kidnappingis not new, and has been in Nigeria criminal statues, ransom insecurity and kidnapping is a new trend and was not known in Nigeria until recently. Moreover it was obvious in 2006 when it was announced that foreign oil workers were kidnapped (Inyang, 2009). However, those expatriates were released after paying huge ransom in millions of naira. Since then, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom has spread to most parts of Nigerian states and Imo state Senatorial District is also affected by it. Many people have been kidnapped and only released after the payment of ransom while in some cases dead bodies were recovered. Igwe Uche Nwaechime, the proprietor of Mac Royale Hotels ltd, from Nkanu West Local Government , Enugu State was kidnapped and slaughtered by the kidnappers. His body was found by a search party at a refuse dump site on the Enugu Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Dr. Paul Edemobi, the proprietor Paul and Grace Foundation and brother to Prof. Dora Akuyili, was kidnapped in Enugu on Monday 1st December 2008 from his 10B Savage Cresent GRA Enugu (Ojukwu, 2011). The wife of Sam Ngene, the then Chairman of Enugu South Local Government Area was kidnapped on March 2009. Also, Nkem Owoh, the popular Nollywood actor was kidnapped along Enugu-Port Harcourt express way (Ugwulebo, 2011). Payment of ransom, tragic recovery of dead bodies and other facts and events as a result of insecurity and kidnappingshapes peoples perception of the crime. Furthermore, Anosike (2009) stated that the incidence of insecurity and kidnappingis a common occurrence in the eastern states. Anosike also noted that states ranging from Anambra to Anambra and Enugu were greatly alarmed by the wave of kidnapping.

However, in 2009, rebranding project was frantically directed towards redeeming the image of Nigeria due to the fact that most countries of the world and Nigerians themselves perceive Nigerians negatively (Dieye and Iwele, 2011: 78). Incidentally, in that same 2009 there was rise in insecurity and kidnapping as available statistics shows that there was 512 incidence of insecurity and kidnapping in 2009 against 353 in 2008 (Ojukwu, 2011: 380). Ojukwu also noted that the ambassador of the rebranding Nigeria project, Pete Edochie was kidnapped in Onitsha on his way to his home town- Nteje. Since then, insecurity and kidnapping has drastically affected the country’s image and major businesses in the country.

Furthermore, insecurity and kidnapping for ransom posses serious threat to the well ordering and functioning of the society and many factors were perceived as its causes. In Nigeria, such factors include corruption among the Nigeria Police Force (Adibe, 2009), unemployment, poverty and leadership failure (Diara, 2010), failure of the government to provide basic amenities and the use of cult gangs and militants by politicians in electoral processes (Okengwu, 2011: 1), access to large quantities of small arms and light weapons (International

Crisis Group, 2006 as cited in Iduh, 2011: 126). This study will lay emphasis on the perception of people in Imo state Senatorial District concerning insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria. There is no doubt that insecurity and kidnappingin Nigeria is in part, a syndrome from many parts of the world- Iraq, the Philippines, Afghanistan, India, Russia, Palestinian Territory, Mexico, Nepal and American (Abati, 2009). Episodes of ransom insecurity and kidnappingin the annals of American history include the case of four year old Charlie Ross in 1874 (Cyntrax, Wilson and Wilson as cited in Ugwuoke, 2010 :197) and Lindbergh case in 1932 ( Allison, 2000: 110). In the Lindbergh’s case, Lindbergh’s child was the centre of a plot, the suffering of the child’s parents, and the difficulties of the police enquiry, were exacerbated by widespread speculation, misinformation and serial random notes (Alexander and Klein 2009: 16). Alexander and Klein further noted that in the 17th century, children were stolen from their families and exported to North American colonies as servants and labourers, hence, ‘kid’ meaning ‘child’ and ‘nap’ or ‘nab’ meaning ‘to snatch’. Insecurity and kidnappingwas therefore connected to the staling of children but the word has come to be used interchangeably with both children and adults. Nevertheless, past account of insecurity and kidnappingrevealed that death penalty was ordered as a punishment for insecurity and kidnappingin ancient Rome when the Emperor Constantine (AD 315) became so alarmed by the incidence of the crime (Akpan, 2010: 33).

However, the early African societies were marked with the incidence of slave trade. In this vein, Ugwu (2010 : 2)., asserted that the weak and the poor were captured and sold into slavery. Ugwulebo (2011: 26) noted that during the colonial era, the colonialists came to some parts of the world, such as Africa, took their able bodied men and women and sold them to far away nations who needed human labour for their plantation and other services. (Onimode as cited in Ugwulebo, 2011: 26-27) had noted that gun powder, gin, mm and other materials were offered by the Europeans to the Africans in exchange for slaves shipped

annually from ports in Nigeria. Therefore, slavery and insecurity and kidnappingwere like two sides of a coin.

1.2 Statement of the Problem:

Since crime is an abnormal human condition, unwanted and most undesired, it requires a paradigm shift on our popular conception of man in an organized society and the chances for a better and peaceful future. The violent crime of kidnapping, currently a global menace, has kept many residents without sleep, as every person (male and female, young and old) seem to command some kidnapping value within the state.

Kidnapping has taken an alarming dimension in Anambra State (Jamiu, 2009). It is said to have sprung up in the Niger Delta when militants, calling for both national and international attention (Nyam, 2010) to the perceived injustices, deprivation and ecological degradation occasioned by oil exploration in the region, took to abduction of expatriate oil workers. Soon President Umar Yar’adua, as part of his Seven Point Agenda, granted presidential pardon to Niger Delta militants. Not long after, Anambra State turned to a hub of kidnappers. This has raised concerns as to whether this wave of abductions is a reaction to the state’s exclusion from, or rather non-inclusion in, the federal government’s Amnesty Grant; or just an act of sheer criminality by seemingly jobless youths.

Kidnapping groups are often beyond the reach of the law enforcement agencies. This is evident in the time taken in conducting their violent bargains by requesting a second payment after reaching agreement and the release of a victim. On other occasions, kidnappers have portrayed inefficiency (whether deliberate or not) with regards to their “data base”, as they have abducted some persons overand over again. The government with little or no political will and a deteriorating moral authority has made several attempts utilising force in its approach to kidnapping diplomacy. Also, through negotiation and Amnesty Grants to youths as a means to its sustainable control, but to no avail. It, therefore, appears that the major issues at the root of the problem have not been addressed.

Having established the fact that the security situation in Anambra state leaves much to be desired. This study wants to find out the causes and counselling strategies for remedying the situation in Anambra state.

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the study:

1. What types of insecurity problem are prevalent in Anambra State?

2. What are the causes of insecurity and jcidnapping in Anambra State?

3. What counselling strategies can be used to remedy insecurity and kidnapping in Anambra state?

Objective Of The Study

1. to determinr the types of insecurity problem are prevalent in Anambra State

2. to evaluate tha causes of insecurity and kidnapping in Anambra State

3. to suggest the counselling strategies can be used to remedy insecurity and kidnapping in Anambra state


One null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance thus:

  1. There is no statistically significant difference in the mean ratings of counselors and students on counselling strategies to be adopted in remedying insecurity and kidnapping in Anambra State.

Significance of the Study:

This study, being an exploration of a lingering and seemingly intractable and protracted social problem, will be of enormous significance to future researchers on kidnapping and similar violent crimes, especially since it is explored from a holistic perspective. It is hoped that this research would aid the various levels of government, policy experts and analysts in grasping the genuine causes and impacts of kidnapping. Ultimately, the study would contribute to closing the gap on the dearth of literature that exists on kidnapping, on the one hand, and other violent crimes, on the other hand.

This study will be of significant value relevant to individuals, families, groups, governmental and non-governmental agencies (especially faith-based organizations) involved in related criminal justice activity all over Nigeria. That is, the religious leaders, law enforcement agents (police and joint military task force) and other security and correctional agents interested in formulation, execution or reformation of the criminals among us.

Scope of the Study:

The researcher’s main task would be to examine kidnapping as an organized but violent crime in Anambra State; however, relevant instances and practical inferences would be drawn from other South-eastern states, and of course states in the core Niger-Delta.

On the panacea or praxis from the church or religion as a social organisation to ameliorate this dysfunctional behaviour, kidnapping, we shall make recourse to successfully organized religious strategies on troubling human challenges.

Definition of Related Terms:

A brief explanatory remark on the key terms will be pertinent to aid a better understanding of the topic under study. The terms include the following: kidnapping, religion, crime, violent crime and deviance.

Kidnapping: Kidnapping is the taking away of a person by force, threat or deceit, with intent to cause him to be detained against his will.

Crime: The complexity of crime requires a conscientious reflection noting its tie with sin and morality in general. Okezie (2007:12) views crime as a “violation of a norm that has been entered into law and is backed by power and authority of the state to impose formal sanction”. Also, Lippman (2010:2) simply defined crime as a “conduct that, if shown to have taken place, will result in a formal and solemn pronouncement of moral condemnation by the community”.



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