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Insecurity as a Bane of National Development in Nigeria: (A Case Study Of Kaduna State 1999-2017)

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Insecurity In Nigeria: Trends, Patterns and Warnings, By Adewale Ajadi



In this study, “Insecurity as a Bane of National Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State, 1999–2017,” this issue is examined. Alarmingly, there has been a rise in insecurity across the nation.  Since the nation emerged from 19 years of uninterrupted military dictatorships, a number of security issues have arisen that affect every part of the nation. As is common knowledge, disputes arise frequently during human interaction and existence. This is because there are so many different types of people in our society, each with unique personalities, passions, and aspirations. The problems of banditry, armed robbery, ritual killing, and fraudulent activities carried out at home and abroad by Nigerians, as well as unemployment, a breakdown in law and order, poorly managed infrastructure facilities, and corruption, have never been seen in any form throughout the year of statehood. The investigation used the Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs. The study made extensive use of secondary data. According to the research, the cost of the country’s pervasive insecurity is impossible to quantify in monetary or real terms, but it is obvious to observers that it has cost Nigerians a great deal of human and material resources. Security is crucial to human existence and survival, as well as to preventing fatalities, property damage, and economic stagnation. The main causes of insecurity are poverty brought on by unemployment and religious diversity. The study suggested that in order to reduce or prevent insecurity, we must ensure that political, social, and economic development initiatives include good governance. In order to prevent the loss of lives and property, government and security agencies must manage insecurity better. To do this, they must maintain formal and informal surveillance at the local government and district levels for a prompt flow of information to aid decision-making. This is where the Nigerian Security and Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC) becomes important to Nigerians.



9 Major Causes and Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria - Bscholarly




  • Background to the Study

There is no denying that the recent spike in insecurity in the nation is concerning.  Since the country emerged from its uninterrupted 19-year military dictatorship, there have been a number of security challenges that cut across every corner of the nation. There was high hope that democracy would foster good governance, which would eventually lead to rapid economic growth, improvements in living standards, and the restoration of political stability. The sad reflection that Nigeria’s restoration to democratic governance has not produced the desired benefits. A serious threat to national security has been posed by the rise in ethno-religious and political conflicts, which have led to ethnic militias’ emergence, political assassinations, kidnappings, exorbitant unemployment, extreme poverty, farmers’ and herders’ disputes, and inadequate infrastructure (Egwemi and Aliu, 2010).

Nigeria has the necessary human and natural resources to be outstanding, one of the world’s developed economies, and a major player in Africa by the year 2020. It establishes the procedures for resource exploitation and attracting both domestic and foreign investors in order to realize its ambition. Nigeria has been referred to as one of the world’s richest nations in terms of natural and human resources, but according to the living conditions of the vast majority of her population, one of the poorest countries. Indeed, it is a contradiction that while having abundant human resources and being the eighth-largest crude oil exporter, the bulk of the country’s population still lives below the poverty line, mostly due to corruption and poor economic management. In addition to the socioeconomic and political issues that Nigeria faces as a result of globalization, there are numerous additional internal tendencies that pose obstacles to the country’s progress. Nigeria faces difficult security difficulties in the middle of all of these, including armed robberies, ethnic unrest, assassinations, militancy, kidnapping, and terrorism. Jama’atul Alhul Sunnah Lidda’watwal Jihad, a dangerous terrorist Islamic cult better known as Boko Haram, IPOB, and the Farmer/Herders Crisis are currently causing Nigeria’s most alarming insecurity issue. Nigeria faces insecurity issues as a result of poor leadership, which is defined by ethnic and religious attitudes, corruption, and poverty, among other things. These factors are sources and causes of poor leadership and insecurity in the nation (Chothia, 2014).

The problems of banditry, armed robbery, ritual killing, and fraudulent activities carried out at home and abroad by Nigerians, along with unemployment, a breakdown in law and order, poorly managed infrastructure facilities, and corruption, have never been witnessed in any way during the year of statehood. The institutionalization of democracy in Nigeria and the political leaders’ failure to address major developmental issues increased the prevalence of criminal activity, including kidnapping. It was also predicted that ethnic militias would be established to defend the interests of regional and cultural identities, that religion would be made political, and that religious fanatics would emerge. Other factors, such as unfavorable laws, the impact of satellite TV stations, which broadcast sensitive and live footage of current events to a wider audience, and the influence of social networking sites, also contributed to the rise of domestic terrorism. Nigeria is not well served by this trend, and the government is continuing to take a very relaxed approach to dealing with the issue. Nigeria is presently developing into a breeding ground for terrorist activities, according to a CIA analysis based on the reality on the ground. A number of historical and contemporary actors have utilized violence to instill terror, frequently by attacking innocent bystanders while adding aspects of surprise and undercutting extremely personal security (Paul, 2006). It is well knowledge that Nigeria is a former colony with around 300 different ethnic groups making up its multiethnic society. Nigeria was described as “a mere-geographical expression” by Awolowo in 1947. Therefore, Nigeria was not a nation by 1947 in terms of social relationships and national identification. Multi-ethnicity, along with its corollaries like multilingualism and competitive ethnicity, is one of the sociological issues with creating Nigeria as a nation in a multinational society. Indigenous Nigerian societies weren’t stable or in equilibrated relationships before the arrival of the Europeans. The various states and people that preceded modern-day Nigeria had a variety of connections, including ties to Kanem-Borno, the Hausa states, Nupe, the Jukun kingdom, the Oyo and Benin empires, the Delta states, and the loosely related Ibo communities (Imobighe, 2003; Hodkins, 1996).

Despite their interdependence, it appears that none of these different communities set up the procedure to unite into one. Nevertheless, they provided the sociocultural framework for all of Nigerian culture, and Otite (1976) argued that these relationships were just as significant as those with societies outside of modern-day Nigeria. The condition of undeniably weak conventional and economic security in Nigeria served as empirically verified evidence that insecurity was the scourge of national progress. Out of the one hundred and seventy seven (177) nations ranked by the Fund of Peace, Nigeria was ranked number fourteen (14) as one of the most failed states in the world. The imposition of capitalism, a fear that places Nigeria in its current political and economic asymmetry with the west and the rest of the globe, can be linked to this. The nation was named by a foreigner, the wife of one of the colonial masters (Lord Lugard), who forced people of diverse tradition, religion, and language together, causing traditionalism, religionism, and personality insecurity in the nation (Tedheke, “Nigeria is a borrowed state forced on us by the British for their own selfish economical interest”; Dauda, 2014).

Protecting the nation from external and internal dangers is only one aspect of the national security debate. Additionally, it entails enhancing the people’s political, physical, food, and socioeconomic security as well as defending the state’s prevailing ideologies, values, and way of life from outside challenges and preventing any kind of social, political, or environmental aggression against the country. So, in order to increase national security, a mix of high-level military action and rising citizenry standards of living is needed (Bello, 2011).

Fundamentally, national prosperity and national security are closely related. The disastrous episodes of bad governance demonstrated by the abuse of political power for personal gain by the political leadership in Africa and the attendant devastating challenges of development, poverty, insecurity, and conflict highlight the importance of governance for development and security (Egwu, 2016). These episodes are also evident in the perversion of the constitution and constitutionalism, subversion of the rule of law and institutions of probity and accountability, and abuse of political power.

The people of Kaduna State and its Local Government Area in Nigeria have experienced several instances of inefficient governance, with a number of politicians abusing their constituents’ confidence while denying them any power to influence how their government is run or how accountable it is to them. Poor leadership, particularly in the previous and current administration, has resulted in a lack of government accountability and transparency, which is largely to blame for the state’s high degree of corruption.  The primary factor impeding effective government in Kaduna state and Nigeria as a whole has been the culture of political and administrative arbitrariness. Because of this, political leadership must be developed in Kaduna state on the basis of competence, commitment, patriotism, acceptance, and self-denial. Since leadership is very essential to good governance, public officials must demonstrate leadership that results in a change in behavior. With Kaduna state as the reference, this research examines the issues of insecurity as a hindrance to national development in Nigeria from 1999 to 2017. It also aims to highlight some obstacles to insecurity, national development, and good governance in an emerging democracy and develops strategies to overcome these obstacles in Kaduna state and Nigeria as a whole.



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