INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND TEACHING OF INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was designed to ascertain the role of Instructional Materials in teaching Introductory Technology in Secondary Schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State. The population of the study was made up of all Junior Secondary school Introductory Technology Teachers for 2016/17 academic season which was 112. Four research questions and four hypothesis guided the study. Relevant literatures on Utilization of Instructional Materials, Availability of Instructional Materials and Factors Militating the use of Instructional Materials, where reviewed. The Instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire, which was validated (both face and content), and the reliability determined. The data collected were analyzed using the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17). Mean statistics and frequency count were respectively used to answer research questions 1,2 and 3,4. The four hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test. The researcher found out that Instructional Materials are vital for teaching Introductory Technology, most teachers do not use Instructional Materials even when they have access to them. The factors militating the use of Instructional Materials which Include; lack of electricity and workshops, Instructional Materials are inadequate and the few available are mostly manual or simple hand tools. Based on the findings, it was concluded that Instructional Materials influences effective teaching and student academic performance in Introductory Technology. It was recommended among others that; government should make available funds and sponsor teachers attendance at conferences, seminars and workshops on effective Utilization of Introductory Technology Instructional Materials.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
Cover page – – – – – – – – – – i
Title page – – – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – iii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iv
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – v
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – viii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – xi
List of Appendices – – – – – – – – xii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – – – – 7
1.4 Significance of the Study- – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.6 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 9
1.7 Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 10
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – – 10
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – – 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – – 12
2.1.1 The concept of Instructional Materials – – – – – 13
2.1.2 The Concept of Utilization of Instructional Materials and Teaching of
Introductory Technology – – – – – – – 24
2.1.3 Factors Militating Against the Use of Instructional Materials in Teaching
Introductory Technology – – – – – – – 27
2.1.4 The Concept of availability of Instructional Materials in Teaching
Introductory Technology – – – – – – – 30
2.2 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 36
2.2.1 Jean Piaget Cognitive Theory – – – – – – 37
2.3 Empirical Studies – – – – – – – – 41
2.4 Summary of Literature Reviewed – – – – – – 46
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 52
3.2 Area of the Study – – – – – – – – 52
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – – – 52
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques – – – – – – 53
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 53
3.6 Validation of Instrument – – – – – – – 53
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – – 54
3.8 Administration of the Instrument – – – – – – 54
3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – 54
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Presentation of Research Questions and Tables – – – – 55
4.1.1 Research Question One – – – – – – – 55
4.1.2 Research Question Two – – – – – – – 56
4.1.3 Research Question Three – – – – – – – 57
4.1.4 Research Question Four – – – – – – – 57
4.2 Presentation of Hypothesis and Tables/Discussion of findings – – 58
4.2.1 Hypothesis One – – – – – – – – 58
4.2.2 Hypothesis Two – – – – – – – – 59
4.2.3 Hypothesis Three – – – – – – – – 60
4.2.4 Hypothesis Four – – – – – – – – 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Findings – – – – – – – 62
5.2 Conclusions – – – – – – – – – 66
5.3 Implication of the Study – – – – – – – 67
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 69
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies – – – – – – 70
5.6 Contribution to Knowledge – – – – – – – 70
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 74
References – – – – – – – – – 78
- Background to the Study
Individuals in the society have seen education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to impacting positively to the survivals of individuals and the society. The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed educational system. Thus education is a behavioral characteristic. It impacts skills, attitude, belief, ability to reason, knowledge and any other form which enables one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills, it enables an individual or a group to proceed into the actualization of the respective individual destiny.
As such, instructional materials provide concepts and attitudes to the student. This improves skills, ability to reason and be informed about what is going on globally. Education has helped to bring the entire world into an entity through the information and knowledge education has offered. Education has helped to reduce problems of language barrier. Through instructions and teachings by teachers, individuals have acquired different languages outside their traditional language. This has greatly helped individuals to associate properly with people from different countries. It has helped one to adjust from his traditional behavior to a more modest behavior that makes the individual to be accommodated in any part of the world he visits.
Education serves as a catalyst to governmental principles, policies and laws. With the acquisition of knowledge, the society structures their means of livelihood. This knowledge gained through education can be facilitated through some devices called instructional materials. An instructional material is an aid to teaching. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional materials make teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing. It makes learning more effective (Clark, 1997).
In another development, the use of instructional materials makes different continents shape their rules and regulations to accommodate those of other counties. A typical example can be seen in West Africa, where member countries with respect to West African Senior School Examination Council (WASSCE) make their educational policies to accommodate and flow with policies of other member countries. An instructional material makes students understand more easily when the teacher makes use of working models. It makes the teachers’ task easier and more effective. Olardi (1990) highlighted that teachers use Instructional Materials to improve the students understanding and perception of a subject as an enhanced aid. It brings clarity and creates recognition and allows them to have a realistic view and a total knowledge of a subject. It enhances learning, improves the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to learners.
According to Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. Obanga (2005), viewed them as material things which are used to compose portrait that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual on a subject.
The use of instructional materials can enhance teaching and learning achievements. Cronbach (2009), viewed Instructional Material as the important elements and behavior that provides the base for learning. They consist of all objects, persons, and symbols in the learning environment. Experience in situation like cutting and drilling of metal when taught with the right machine and tools like cutting machine and portable hand drill machine prepares a person to respond in a more enlightened and creative way for better production. Use of instructional material also appeals to learners’ attention by creating interest that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Brown (2005), summarized the role of teaching aids as follows;
- It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning.
- They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent.
- They help to overcome the presumptions and thoughts of learners about inaccessible materials and tools by practically availing students to see and feel.
- They provide a common experience upon which late learning can be developed.
- They stimulate and motivate students to learn.
- They encourage participation especially if learners are allowed to manipulate materials used.
Osuala (2010), in his own contribution said that it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the learner, but also help to bring about an enhanced respect for teachers’ knowledge of the subject. Instructional materials are also described as concrete to the sense organs during teaching.
The nature of the learning and the wide range of the learners a abilities in the average classroom necessitates a high degree of teachers experience in the method of presenting the subject matter. But this is presumed to have been truncated by challenges such as;
- Unavailability of instructional materials
- Administrative educational management
- Utilization of instructional materials
- And other militating factors to be ascertained by this research.
The common goal of teachers is to make lesson presentation understandable, stimulating, and interesting to learners. To achieve this, the teacher individualizes the learning method as well as the content and also work according to the students need, level and speed of assimilation. This goal can be reached most effectively through the use of instructional materials.
Equipment and instructional materials to some extent determine the method the teacher uses in teaching introductory technology. The method adopted could be demonstration, experimental, discussion and so on. It is a general perception by both teachers and school administrators that apart from chalk board and text books which are often available for the teacher to use, there are other materials that aid or are capable of complementing the teachers’ effort in teaching/learning process. These materials are commonly called instructional materials.
From the fore-going statement, it can be agreed that for effective learning to take place, a student needs to be properly guided by the teacher by way of employing various methods and means through which his teaching could be meaningful. The duty of ensuring effective learning delivery is believed to be linked with proper use of instructional materials. With introductory technology as one of the secondary school subject that encompasses the use of tools, equipment, and machines generally called instructional materials, it is pertinent to ascertain the influence of these instructional materials on teaching topics in Introductory Technology, hence the need for these research; Instructional materials and teaching of introductory technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
Introductory Technology is one of the most important basic subjects taught in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. It is relevant to arts, craft and science subjects like carpentry, production and physics respectively. It also presents the basic fundamental knowledge for careers like engineering. Hence Introductory Technology is considered an indispensable tool in the study of science, craft and technology. The importance of Introductory Technology as a subject in our schools and in everyone’s life cannot be over emphasized, since its content has been an integral part of man’s intellectual training throughout ages.
The achievements in today’s world are made possible through advancement in science and technological programs. This is facilitated through the study of mother subjects like Introductory Technology. This subject introduces or reveals to young learners the basic and fundamental ideas and knowledge that bear forth technological researches for onward technological advancement in areas like industries, war weapons, computers, furniture, car and airplane.
In preparing young learners for life, the power of Introductory Technology in character building through active involvement, with stimulating curiosity, self-expression and self-criticism is very important. Worthy of note is the very obvious fact that introductory technology is one basic subject that prepares young individuals to be self-reliant rather than hope and seek for government and private white collar jobs. Therefore, any student who is to proceed to higher education and as well have the mind set of self-entrepreneur success in life should get Introductory Technology background in junior secondary school. The general secondary school objective could be summarized as preparation for useful living within the society and preparation for higher education. The objective of the junior secondary school (JSS) as stated in the National Policy Education (1977) among others are that Junior Secondary School will be both pre-vocational and academic, it will be free as much as possible and will teach all the basic subjects which will enable pupils to acquire further knowledge and develop skills. Students, who leave school at the Junior high school stage, may go on to an apprenticeship system or some other scheme for out-of-school vocational training. It is in consideration to the above general objective of Junior Secondary School that the objectives of Introductory Technology in Junior Secondary School were drawn. They are summarized as follows;
- To develop in the child ability to adapt to his changing environment.
- To provide a basic tool for further advancement as well as prepare him for trade and craft of his locality.
- To give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limit of his
- To lay a solid foundation for the concept of scientific thinking.
- To stimulate and encourage creativity.
However, the stated objectives, minds of some concerned persons in the country are being disturbed by the unveiling poor performance shown by students in public examinations for some years now (Ivowi, 1983). Based on this research is carried out to identify those variables that could cause the poor performance of students in Introductory Technology.
- Statement of the Problem
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learners. In Nigeria for example, experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the result of public examination is released, there has always shown mass failure in Junior Secondary Three Introductory Technology Examination result between 2011 and 2014, Maduabum (1989) in Ene (1991). The reason for these could be linked to the fact that there are topics in Introductory Technology that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of essential teaching materials. Such topics as; building drawing, wood work, wiring, power transmission, drives, setting out, energy conversion and metal cannot be taught without drawing sets, wood machines tools or equipment (lathe machine, hammer, chisel, saw, drill), electrical tools and components. This is because they are practically oriented.
Scholars including Mutebic and Matora (1994) have emphasized the effect of instructional material utilization in teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practically.
However, this research seeks to ascertain the influence of Instructional Materials on Teaching of Introductory Technology in Secondary Schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
- Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is stated as follows:
- To ascertain the influence of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
- To determine the influence of utilization of instructional materials on teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
- To determine factors that militates against the use of instructional materials in teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
- To assess the influence of availability of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study could be significant to the following group of people;
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials could enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby improve performance in their studies. This is because learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideals and principles are acquired, retained and utilized and the best means of archiving this is through the use of instructional materials (Nwadinigwe, 2000).
This study as well could help enhance teachers teaching effectiveness and productivity. This is in line with the assertion of Ekwueme and Igwe (2001) who noted that it is only the teacher who guarantees effective and adequate usage of instructional materials and thereby facilitate success.
This study will help curriculum planners to put the role of instructional materials into consideration in the design of instructional objectives.
Finally, this study could help to provide a framework on which further research could be conducted in this important area of education.
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of Study
This study was delimited to the roll of instructional materials in teaching of introductory technology in junior secondary three in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State. This is because the researcher resides in this senatorial district and as such, has the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area.
1.6 Research Questions.
In order to achieve the purpose of this research, the following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- What is the influence of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State?
- What is the influence of utilization of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State?
- What are the factors that militate against the use of instructional material in teaching Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State?
- What is the influence of availability of instructional materials on the teaching of introductory technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State?
The following null hypothesis where formulated to guide the study:
Ho1: There is no significant influence of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
Ho2: There is no significant influence of the utilization of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
Ho3: There is no significant influence of the factor that militates against the use of instructional materials in teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot-Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
Ho4: There is no significant influence of availability of instructional materials on the teaching of Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In carrying out this study, the researcher encountered some constraints. They were as follows;
- The researcher administered the instrument at mid-July when most schools where on student examinations, hence it was difficult to attract the attention of Introductory Technology Teachers since most of them where engaged in the administration and supervision process of the all-important promotional examination.
- Some Introductory Technology Teachers whom the Instrument was administered to requested for remuneration in exchange for their service and knowledge.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.
Instructional materials: These are objects or devices which help the teacher to make the lesson much clear and understandable to the learner.
Introductory technology: This is a school subject taught in secondary schools that deals with exposing young students to the basic aspect of technology and engineering.
Utilization: This is the act of using something especially for a particular purpose.
Utilization of instructional materials: This is simply the put to effective use materials, equipment, tools and objects that ensures and enhances understanding in teaching and learning process.
Availability of Instructional Materials: this is simply the state of resource materials being able to be bought, used, or reached.