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 CHAPTER ONE

                                               INTRODUCTION

  • Background Of The Study

 

Abuse of substance has rapidly increased all over the world and the age of initiation of drug abuse is intensively increasing. Experimentation with addictive drugs begins in adolescence as they are cognitively immature and vulnerable to influences from social gathering in schools and colleges. Recent reports have documented a global increase in addictive drug availability and consumption and a pattern of vulnerability among those aged between 15 and 25 years (Haddad et al., 2010). Encouragement from peer groups, deep desire to be famous, poor relationship with parental and easy availability of drugs push students into abuse of substances. Earlier initiation of drug use is found to have more impairment, crime, and difficult to quit and is usually associated with a poor prognosis and a lifelong pattern of deceit and irresponsible behavior (Chatterjee et al., 2011).

Substance abuse is quite prevalent among the adolescent population worldwide (12.5%- 84%) (Singh et al., 1991; Tsering et al., 2010). The major concern of government in developing countries like Nigeria, is about involvement of adolescents and young adult in drug abuse, which is defined as a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. While it is universally accepted that drugs can be of tremendous benefit to man and society, it is also acknowledged that inappropriate use of drugs can be harmful to man .The personal, social and public health problems associated with psychoactive substance use, have continued to arouse worldwide interest and concern. Various reports and researches conducted have illustrated this phenomenon. Drugs abuse is a global hazard with dangerous complications that affect many countries around the globe, Nigeria inclusive. The problem varies from place to place.

Drug abuse according to Laver (1978), simply means the improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences became detrimental to the user and or the society. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2006), defined drug abuse as a state of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individuals and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Some other drugs have been found to be capable of producing effects that are not beneficial but harmful (Oloyede, 1996). The term drug abuse, applies only to instances in which people take drugs purely to change their moods, and in which people experience impaired behaviors or social functioning as a result of doing so (Wallace & Fisher 1987). Unfortunately, when people consume consciousness-altering drugs on a regular basis, they often develop dependence and come to need the drug, and cannot function without it. According to Odejide, Ohaeri, Adelekan and Ihuesan (1987), they remarked that psychoactive substance abuse is a common problem among adolescents especially for the socially acceptable drugs like alcohol and cigarettes. A survey of secondary school students in Ilorin, Kwara State reported that 12 percent were using alcohol (Abiodun, Adelekan, Ogunremi, Oni & Obayan, 1994). Substance abuse and other related problems constitute a major threat to the survival and effective functioning of human societies, lives are lost daily through addiction and activities of addicts. A significant number of accidents that leads to death and violent crimes have been traced to the activities of persons acting under the influence of drugs. Treatment facilities nationwide are now gradually being over burden with drug-associated problems and cases. The need to prevent drug abuse among the general population and by the growing generation of Nigeria thus becomes imperatives. Nigeria which once served only as trans-shipment route for drugs soon became a “consumer” country when it was observed that the increasing incidence of drug abuse among students is a contributory factor in the ugly confrontation between school administrators and students. The problem of drug abuse poses a far greater health hazard than most imagine. Psychoactive drugs and substances have the primary effect on the mind such as altering mood, feelings, perceptions and behaviors. These drugs are usually taken to give an insulation from the real world and its difficulties. This is accompanied by the feeling that varies according to the drugs used. This is common to those whose personality development is insufficient to enable them cope with the normal life.

  • Statement of the problem

The introduction of drug and other substance by undergraduates into schools and colleges in all its ramifications appears to be a social problem. This problem grew like wildfire and has affected all and sundry. In other words, the wide spread use and abuse of drugs among student could entice people from all walks of life. This could go beyond the human destruction caused by drug dependence down to the damage of traditional values and lifestyles. Studies have also shown that drug abuse wrecks individual, shatter families and weakens entire society with its burden of economic loses, health cost and increased lawlessness and crime (Hoffman, 1990 and Earl, 2000). Adding to this, drug abuse may entail a lot of social problems ranging from lateness to lectures, family neglect, deviant behaviors, involvement in crimes etc (Earl 2000). In terms of economic cost, it includes the more money required to deal with undesirable effects of the drug abuse, the less money for services and programmes that enhances the quality of life (Earl 2000). Judging from the problems outlined, the researcher aims at assessing the Knowledge of drug abuse among Students in Aminu Salleh College of education Azare Bauchi state.

  • Objectives of the study
  1. To assess the level of knowledge of Aminu Saleh College of Education student on drugs abuse.
  2. To identify the various types of drugs abused by the students.
  • To identify predisposing factors for drug abuse among the students.
  1. In the light of the above findings to make recommendations to the management on how to minimized the problem in the school.
    • Research hypotheses

HO: There is no significant relationship between knowledge of drug abuse and the students of Aminu Saleh College of Education.

H1: There is a significant relationship between knowledge of drug abuse and the students of Aminu Saleh College of Education.

HO: There is no significant relationship between drug usage and the age of students of Aminu Saleh College of Education.

H1: There is a significant relationship between drug usage and the age of students of Aminu Saleh College of Education.

  • Research questions

This study intends to answer the following research questions:

  • Is there any significant relationship between knowledge of drug abuse and the students of Aminu Saleh College of Education?
  • Is there any significant relationship between drug usage and the age of students of Aminu Saleh College of Education?
  • Is there any relationship between gender and the knowledge of drugs abuse by students of Aminu Saleh College of Education?
  • Is there any relationship between academic performance and the use of the drugs by students of Aminu Saleh College of Education?
    • Significance Of The Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study it would help in sensitizing the society on the general effects of drug abuse on their health most especially to the student of Aminu Saleh College of Education. It would also make the youths to realize that excessive or even small intake of this item (drugs) has inhibitory effects on their brain. The result of this research would be used in making the students to rethink before partaking in the act. The data and information obtained in the course of this research would assist Institutions and authorities and most especially the Information and Communication Technology Directorate of Aminu Saleh college of Education Azare, and Bauchi state to understand the extent of problems associated with drug abuse and the need to expedite action in reducing the prevalence of psychoactive substance abuse among undergraduate students of the college. Finally, the study would be of help to young scholars and researchers and writers in solving some problems of associated with drug abuse, thereby ensuring good health of undergraduates or youths in general and social harmony in the society.

  • Scope And Limitation Of The Study

Although the scope of this study seems broad, the researcher centers on the knowledge of drugs abuse among student in Aminu Saleh college of Education, Azare Bauchi state. With the view of exploring students’ attitude and experiences regarding the issue of drug abuse/misuse. Also to explore their opinion on currently suggested strategies in tackling drug misuse in the college and society at large.

However, the researcher encountered some challenges which tends to hinder the free flow of this research work, which include the under listed:-

Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.

Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

  • Definition of terms

Drugs: These are substances which may modify one or more of body functions. Drug is a chemical other than those required for the maintenance of normal health which on administration alters biological functions. The World Health Organization (WHO) scientific group defined a drug as; any substance or product that is used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.

Substances: Includes drugs as well as other compounds which are pharmacologically active, though the two terms drugs and substances have been used interchangeably in this study.

Psychoactive drugs/substances: These are drugs/substances possessing the ability to alter mood, anxiety, behavior, cognitive process or mental tension. They mainly have their effects on the brain and psychological functions.

Drug Abuse: Referred to consumption of drug other than for medical purpose. A drug is abuse when it is obtained illegally or the legally obtained one is misused. Drug abuse is the persistent, excessive and improper use of drug without regard tom medical practice which may lead to body dependence on drug. It is the use of drug when it is not medically necessary, when use of socially acceptable drugs.

Drug Addiction: This is a condition which becomes a costumed to the pharmacological content of a drug and the psychic effect could no longer work on the biological nature of the body unless the content of such drug is increase. Usually addiction leads to dependence since the body mechanism are being destroyed to work naturally.

Drug dependence: A state psychic and sometimes also physical resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effect, and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence. Tolerance may or may not be present. A person may be dependent on more than one drug. Drug dependence is the excessive craving which develops as a result of repeated administration of a drug despite the terrible psychological or physical effects produced by these substances. There are two forms of dependence:

  1. Psychological dependence is a state in which a person’s thoughts, emotions and activities are dominated by the drug to which the person is dependent to the extent that he craves drug when he cannot get a regular supply and in the right quantity.
  2. Physical dependence: Is a state in which the body is adapted to the presence of the drug and when the administration of the drug is suspended or reduced, various abnormal reactions, typical of each drug occur. These reaction are termed withdrawal or abstinence syndrome.

Tolerance: That is an adaptive characterized by diminished responses to the same quantity of a drug or by fact that a larger dose is required to produce the same degree of pharmacodynamics effects.

Drug control: This is a national and international agreement governing and restricting production, movement and use of a drug to medical and scientific needs in the interest of public health and for the prevention of drug abuse. This is aimed to optimize the risk-benefit ratio.

Youth: Include young adults in their twentieth (20 – 29) years old as well as adolescents in their tens (10 – 19) years 33. Youth is anybody in the period between early childhood and old age 34. It is a period of risk and vulnerability, it is a time of experimentation, exploration, curiosity, a search for identity and risk taking, such risk taking can include the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. It is thins time that young people seek to achieve independence from their parents and to become established as adults. It is a period of changes in the body both hormonal, physical, emotional and behavioral changes that make the individuals vulnerable to so many influences.

Vulnerable: Is the degree to which an individual is unable to anticipate, cope with changes, resistance and hazards or problems.

Prevention: These includes activities designed to provide permanent protection from a problem.

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