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ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at investigating into male roles in family planning taking a case study of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. In carrying out the studies the researcher postulated research questions and identified the various problems as affect male participation in family planning such as belief, taboo and sex discrimination. The instrument used was the questionnaire a simple percentage tabulation was used to analyze the data collected, after which recommendations was made based on the findings, stating the need of husband and wife communication in the development of home. Further research concerning role of mass media in family planning ids also necessary.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                       CHAPTER ONE

                                      INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

Family planning is not new in the society; it has been well established in developed countries that those under developed countries could not recognize that they are practicing family planning. It was such in the area of study that when a woman put to bed or deliver a baby she is sent to her mother to nurse the baby for one or two years. The period of stay with her mother was meant to breast feed the baby, after which she then return to her husband. This way natural child spacing was taking place without relishing it. However, family planning started in Nigeria because of the obvious problems of brutality means (violent) of born and unborn children. These reasons were based on child jumping that is a child that is unwanted can be dump into the street, gutter, mot, some are found in front of orphanage, bush part and to public toilet. In 1954, Adeniyi Jones established the first family planning centre in Nigeria she continue without support until 1969 when pathfinder provide fund to sustain the programme. Fortunately for her in 1984 the family planning centre of Nigeria (FCN) was further organized for woman for better services. This include provision of family planning methods to improve maternal mortality and those with health risk 1989, president Ibrahim Babagida limited the number of children to 4 (four) per parent or couple, this programme was very good but could not be sustained because of poor service and management. Family planning is the processes of controlling the number of children wanted in a marriage using contraceptive method, often known as birth control measure Jeoffery (2004) also support the view that family planning is a means by which individual or couples space the interval of child birth based on mutual agreement between the husband and wife in order to have children they can conveniently care or adequately cater for. In the word of Gribbe, J. (2008) cited in Mabel Oshomah work he opine that “family planning can be better explained as being a situation where people have children by choice and not by change”, to him the happiness of the family squarely depend on the number of children a family has to cater for.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) (2002) conceptive is a drug or device used to prevent woman from getting pregnant, this can sometimes be called birth control according to (FPA) Family Planning Association. It is discussed as a special device that prevent fertilization of egg in the ovum by special device used to limit reproduction, which provide a safe and effective way to regulate fertility of the womb. Family is a unit that comprises of man, wife and children here the man is the head of the family or home he plan and place resources in strategic areas that requires development in the home. If the size of the family determines the happiness of the family according to Gribble .J. (2008), then the male take viable decision as it may affect6 the health of the family and also look forward to having a family he can carter for. Therefore, he has a role to play in family planning as no man would prefer spending his income on sickness or hospital and feeding of children, without proper education, entertainment, proper nutrition, home that will be suitable and comfortable for the family.

In Mathusian easy on population he opined that population increase in arithmetic progression (2, 6, 8, 12, 24 …) while food increases in geometric progression (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,). This place a lot of responsibility on family life. He further explained that if population continue to increase it might possible lead to food shortage. Rosen and Conly (1998) opined that “we see the need through family planning to prevent the health risk of frequent child birth and death associated with pregnancy and child birth to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted disease (STD) including HIV/AIDS. Since the call by Gen. Ibrahim Babagida to reduce Nigeria population ratio and to reduce poverty rate, inflation and unemployment. It therefore becomes the need of the man to rebrand, the structure and to plan or position every resources available to achieve maximum living standard of living, by reducing the number of children by means of birth control fertility. FPN (1962). This he can achieve by means of using male contraceptives, female contraceptive, financing, advising and also to join the government to promote the use of contraceptive in Nigeria and the world at large.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

It’s important to make it clear that family planning is not just for stopping child bearing but it is also for child spacing.

In Nigeria, evidence shows that over population has been one of problem in economics development. The problem is that people behave to bear the entire child in their womb, without knowing the result.

Population has to be control, to the availability of resource to the counting, to enable the countries economics growth suit the population. In doing so, the countries social, cultural and economic development will grow.

In the study the researcher postulated the following research problem or identified the following problems;

  1. Women is often blame for the size of the family when the number of child is high.
  2. Women often complain of lack of support from their spouse or husband.

iii. Women do not relate the issues of contraceptive or family planning to spouse or husband until its result in an unwanted pregnancy.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  

The study is designed to serve or to examine into;

  1. The role of male in family planning
  2. To find out reasons poor application of contraceptive (family planning) method in the area of study.
  3. Proffer solution or recommendation that will further improve on the existing use of contraceptive method and to further open the eyes of the male folk in full participation in family planning.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In order for effect measurement and making valid judgment based on the study, the following null and alternate research hypotheses has been postulated.

H0: The women are often blamed of the high number of children in the family

H1: The men are often blamed of the high number of children in the family

H0: husbands do not provide the necessary support for their woman’s contraceptive or family planning

H2: husbands do provide the necessary support for their woman’s contraceptive or family planning

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study shall bring about recommendations that will serve as eye opener to the male folk in area of lacking active part or participation in family planning by bringing out the need for me to encourage their wife use of family planning method financial emotional, psychologically and emotionally.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is meant to cover Ugbowo (Noval Road, Technical Road, Uselu, Ediaken Primary School Road and Army Barrack. Taking a sample of selected adult married couples.

In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some limitations which limited the scope of the study;

Staff Reluctance: In most cases the staff of the used study often feels reluctance over providing required information required by the researcher. This result in finding information where the structured questionnaires could not point out.

Researcher’s Commitment: The researcher, being of full time student spent most of her time on other academic activities such as test, class work, assignment, examination etc which takes average focus from this study.

Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Fertility: This is the number of birth per thousand by women.

STD: Sexually transmitted disease.

AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

HIV: Human immune virus

Population: Is the number of people living in a given country.

Welfare: Is a condition of having good health, comfortable living. And working condition.

Withdrawal: This is the pull back of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation.

 FAMILY PLANNING: As used in this research, at is a means by which couples space and control the number of children, they can adequately cater for.

FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMERS: In this research work, it means those programmes of FRCN, ESBS, NTA- used by families to achieve family planning objective.

FAMILY: As used this work, it means, a primary social group consisting of inter-parents and their offspring.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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