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MASS MEDIA MALARIA MESSAGES AND ITS IMPACT ON THE USE OF INSECTICIDE-TREATED BED NETS AMONG RESIDENTS OF ABIA STATE

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ABTRACT

The primary objective of this study is to assess mass media malaria messages and its impact on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among residents of Abia State.The study adopted the survey research designand randomly enrolled participants using the convenience sampling technique to choose the sample size in the study. A total of 261 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent aremedia listeners and presenters  resident in Aba north local government and Osisioma Ngwa Local government. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. Findings of the study rebvealed that That mass media malaria awareness on Insecticide treated net has been of great impact by  reducing  the number of infected persons,  contributed substantially to declines in malaria morbidity and all-cause mortality across the state and  by physically inhibiting human-mosquito contact and by chemically deterring, irritating, and killing mosquitoes. More so, this effort has been slow due to the challenges of mass media houses and their anti-malaria campaign which includes: Absence of health professional volunteer to speak  on malaria phone-in-programme, misconception associated to the ITN and Utilization-related barriers including  complaints against excessive heat, difficulty in breathing and discomfort caused by the nets.The study however recommended that Media organization need to recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize health  misinformation in Nigeria and across Africa thus this should enhance their effectiveness in performing their social responsibility of sensitizing the masses on health matters. More so, Health practitioner should endeavour to volunteer in phone-in-programme as they have core knowledge on the subject and will bring clarity to audience questions on utilization on insecticide treated net.

TITLE PAGE                                                                                   

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

List of Tables

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Objective of the study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Significance of the study

1.6       Scope of the study

1.7       Limitation of the study

1.8       Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Conceptual Framework

2.2       Theoretical Framework

2.3       Empirical Studies

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Population of the study

3.4       Sample size determination

3.5       Sample size selection technique and procedure

3.6       Research Instrument and Administration

3.7       Method of data collection

3.8       Method of data analysis

3.9       Validity of the study

3.10     Reliability of the study

3.11     Ethical consideration

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Population of the study

3.4       Sample size determination

3.5       Sample size selection technique and procedure

3.6       Research Instrument and Administration

3.7       Method of data collection

3.8       Method of data analysis

3.9       Validity of the study

3.10     Reliability of the study

3.11     Ethical consideration

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1       Data Presentation

4.2       Descriptive Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY,CONCLUSION &RECOMENDATION

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

References

Appendix       

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Malaria has been a source of concern across the world, particularly in Nigeria owing its surrounding of tropical habitat.  In 2012, millions of people perished from this preventable and treatable disease, with over half of the world’s population still at risk of infection (Amajor, 2011). Malaria is induced by both behavioral and non-behavioral factors in Nigeria. The continued prevalence of malaria in these areas has been blamed on some cultural practices that encourage mosquito breeding and access to people, as well as at-risk populations’ failure to use technologies required for effective malaria treatment, control, and prevention in a timely and appropriate manner.  According to  Corcoran, ( 2007), the situation was exacerbated by the growth of parasites and vectors that are resistant to medications and pesticides.hence Nigeria’s  geographical or ecological circumstances have been pushed as being particularly beneficial to mosquitoes and, as a result, the prevalence of plasmodia. Therefore, it is also critical to comprehend the dynamics and consequences of these elements in order to build an effective malaria intervention program in Nigeria.

As a malaria-endemic nation, with statistics showing that malaria cases have increased significantly over the years,  Malaria prevention and control are best accomplished with an integrated strategy that includes first-line medications, case management, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITN). (Corcoran, 2007) stated that the use of ITNs and indoor residual spraying is recommended for all people at risk, and the impact of ITNs on malaria control has been well documented, with reports indicating that population coverage of ITNs of more than 70% reduces clinical malaria and all-cause mortality in children by 15% to 30% in Nigeria. Studies has shown that the use of Insecticide Treated Nets has reduced mortality. A major, (2011) noticed that the poorest populations bear the brunt of the malaria burden, since they frequently lack basic information about the causes, effects, and capacity to pay treatment and preventative measures. In addition to the financial and behavioral difficulties, there are demographic and gender elements that are less typically discussed. A lack of knowledge and awareness of a disease is a key barrier to the prevention and intervention of any public health crisis; this may be considerably alleviated by increasing health communication tools and disseminating health information through traditional and/or digital media.

In Nigeria, mass media efforts have been utilized to educate people, particularly pregnant women, about the benefits of using ITNs on a daily basis. In many developing countries, print and electronic media have been widely employed in behavioral change messaging. Other forms of community communication, such as health literacy (via community drama and religious institutions), paper (poster, billboard, newspaper) and digital (television, radio) media, have been found to be important vehicles for the transmission of health knowledge and have been studied as public health behavior modification tools.Diala, (2013) opined that to encourage the usage and adoption of these malaria prevention techniques, mass media campaigns have been launched to educate the general public, particularly pregnant women, on the effectiveness and long-term advantages of using ITNs correctly and consistently during pregnancy. Messages from the mass media campaign were broadcast on national radio and television stations in English, Pidgin English, and Nigeria’s three major local languages. In addition, billboards with clear statements on the link between mosquitos and malaria prevention were installed in key areas around Nigeria’s main cities to promote access to accurate information. Posters were created from the messages on the billboards as well as handbills that were widely circulated around the nation (Amodu,  Adeyemo,  Olumese & Gbadegesin, 1998). However, data for African nations is intermittent, and little is known regarding the effect of mass media on malaria preventative behavior, such as the use of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy and the use of ITNs.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 Efforts has been made thus far in Nigeria using the mass media campaigns to combat malaria,by government and private bodies, are admirable. However, it appears that there is a significant gap in sensitization through the use of mass media and the populace. Amodu,  Adeyemo,  Olumese & Gbadegesin, (1998) noticed that this is due to the fact that the disease has remained a serious health concern in the country despite the massive resources, both human and material, invested in the effort. As a result, the necessity for strategic communication to address the challenges impeding the success of various courses of action and keep people better informed about the way out has become increasingly obvious. Diala, C. (2013) opined that tt is important to remember that for many malaria control measures to be successful, community engagement is required, which is dependent on persons’ knowledge and awareness of the illness this  raises the  questions on  media awareness messages or anti-disease programs are not being adequately disseminated to Nigerians. More so is the concern on we use communication medium can be to used t improve the process of malaria healthcare delivery, as a result, the purpose of this study seeks to answer these question. It is on this note that the study focused on  Mass Media Malaria Messages and its Impact on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among residents of Abia State and what can be done to improve it.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this study is to assess mass media malaria messages and its impact on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among residents of Abia State. Other aims of this study are:

  1. To identify the attitudes of Abia state residents concerning mass media messages about malaria.
  2.  To identify the challenges of mass media houses and their anti-malaria campaign
  3.    To evaluate the impact of insecticide treated bed nets on the spread of malaria

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Questions guiding this research are:

  1. What are the attitudes of of Abia State residents concerning mass media messages about malaria?
  2. What are the challenges of mass media houses and their anti-malaria campaign?
  3. What are the impacts of insecticide treated bed nets on the spread of malaria?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of great benefit to the health sector and its officials as the benefits of using ITNs and the control of malaria will be discussed. It will also be of great importance to the media industry as it will show its standing and its impacts on anti-malaria campaign with the aim of encouraging them to broadcast more content related to malaria awareness. The result of the study will be beneficial to the society as it will show the effects of using ITNs hence would enable masses to adjust lifestyle that exposes them malaria disease. Empirically, the study will contribute to the body of knowledge and serve as reference to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will be carried out in selected communities in Abia state. This study will be looking at the assessment of mass media malaria messages and its impact on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among residents of Aba North Local Government, Abia State.The study will further access the attitude of Abia resident towards using Insecticide Treated Net.The study is however delimited Osisioma Ngwa Local government resident in Abia State.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research will be limited to residents of Aba North Local Government Area of Abia State and as such the results of this study cannot be applied outside of this area. This study will only be focusing on mass media campaign and the use of ITNs. It will not be focusing on any kind of anti-malaria campaign.

During the course of this research, financial constraints were encountered. This serves as a limitation to this study.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS:

Mass media: technology that is intended to reach a mass audience

Malaria: an intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite which invades the red blood cells and is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions.

Messages: a verbal, written, or recorded communication sent to or left for a recipient who cannot be contacted directly

Impact: a marked effect or influence

Insecticide: a substance used for killing the insects

Residents: a person who lives in a place permanently or long term basis.

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