METAL CONTENTS IN SYRINGE AND OTHER DISPOSABLES HOSPITAL PLASTIC MATERIAL
| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|
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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
This project was undertaken in order to determine metal content in syringe and other disposable hospital plastic material in (Cd, Zn, Co, pb, and Ni) using AAS (Atomic Adsorption spectroscopy). A wet digestion was done on the samples using the mixtures of HNO3/HCl, in volume of 10ml in ratio of 3:1. the concentration of pb, Zn, Co, Cd, and Ni were evaluate using (AAS) Atomic Adsorption spectroscopy. The experiment show that the concentration mg/kg of this metals in plastic, syringe and drip is as follows for Zn:65.78±0.003,38.03±0.002 and 46.58±0.005, for Pb :6.48±0.004,6.35±0.002 and 2.88±0.000, for Co:2.25±0.003,-2.00±0.002,-5.68±0.001, for Ni:1.63±0.004,0.78±0.001,0.48±0.002, for Cd:0.75±0.300,0.43±0.017,0.40±0.016.The result indicate that plastic have higher concentration of heavy metal follow by syringe and then drip.it was found that in Zn the three sample have concentration below the standard limit which have no negative effect on human, Ni have two of its sample below standard limit which is good for human health while the third sample concentration is above the permissible limit which have negative effect on human and environment. Both Pb and Cd have sample whose concentration is above the set standard limit which is dangerous for human health and also to the environment while Co have sample whose concentration is below detection limit.
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 6
CHAPTER ONE.. 9
1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 9
1.1 Potential for Heavy Metal Contamination: 9
1.2 Statement of Research Problem.. 10
1.3 Justification. 11
1.4 Aim and Objective. 11
CHAPTER TWO.. 12
LITERATURE REVIEW… 12
2.1 Syringe. 12
2.2 Composition of Syringe. 12
2.3 Types and Classification of Syringes. 13
2.4 Heavy Metals. 17
2.5 Source of Heavy Metal 20
2.6 Bio toxic Effect of Heavy Metal 21
CHAPTER THREE.. 29
3.0 MATERIAL AND METHOD. 29
3.1 Apparatus. 29
3.2 Reagents. 29
3.3 Sample Collection and Sample Preparation: 29
3.4 Sample Digestion: 31
3.5 Quality Control 32
3.6 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (AAS) 32
3.7 BASIC PRINCIPLE FOR AAS. 33
3.8 INSTRUMENTATION.. 33
3.9 APPLICATION OF AAS. 35
CHAPTER FOUR.. 36
4.0 Concentration of Heavy Metal 36
4.1 DISCUSSION OF RESULT. 39
CHAPTER FIVE.. 44
5.0 Summary. 44
5.1 Conclusion. 44
5.2 Recommendation. 45
Syringes and other hospital plastic material such as dextrose saline infusion are crucial medical devices used in various healthcare settings for the administration of medications, vaccines, and diagnostic purposes. They play a vital role in ensuring accurate dosing, maintaining aseptic conditions, and reducing the risk of infectious diseases. However, it is important to be aware of the potential for heavy metal contamination in syringes and dextrose saline infusion as these contaminants can pose health risks to patients.
Syringes allow healthcare professionals to deliver precise doses of medications, ensuring optimal treatment outcomes. The graduated markings on syringe barrels enable accurate measurement and dosing, enhancing patient safety and therapeutic efficacy. Also, they are designed to maintain a sterile environment during medication administration. The use of single-use, disposable syringes and dextrose saline infusion reduce the risk of cross-contamination and healthcare-associated infections. Proper disposal of used syringes also helps prevent needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. Syringes have a wide range of medical applications, including intravenous injections, subcutaneous injections, intramuscular injections, and aspiration of body fluids. Their versatility makes them indispensable in diverse healthcare settings such as hospitals, clinics, and home healthcare.
Some syringe components, including needles and needle hubs, may contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, or nickel. These metals can leach into medications or body tissues, posing potential health risks when injected.
The manufacturing processes involved in syringe production can introduce heavy metals into the final product. Metal alloys used in syringe barrels or plunger rods may contain trace amounts of heavy metals. Contamination can occur during raw material extraction, processing, or storage.
Environmental contamination can contribute to heavy metal presence in syringes. Contaminated air, water, or soil used during manufacturing can introduce heavy metals into the syringe components. Improper disposal of syringes may lead to the release of heavy metals into the environment, creating potential health hazards.
Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury can cause various health issues, including organ damage, neurological disorders, and developmental problems. Patients exposed to contaminated syringes may experience adverse effects due to heavy metal toxicity.
Heavy metals have been implicated in the deterioration of human health, for instance in the prevelance of cancer in humans, in displacement of essential constituent of the blood among many others (uddesh et al;2021). Elevated level of metal in syringe and other hospital plastic material will in turn pass the metal to man during consumption. The metal upon entry to the body will cause a significant increase in heavy metal related health challenges like increase in cancer, which has become a global concern. This is because heavy metal have a bioaccumulation effect. In view of this it has therefore become imperative to assess the level of metal pollution in syringe and other hospital plastic material.
The study of heavy metals in syringe and other medical disposable material like dextrose saline infusion is taken to determine the presence of heavy metals and how it affects human health. The most influential factor of this work is to educate the public on the concentration of heavy metals find in these materials. The knowledge acquired from this study will help medical practitioners and patients on how to protect themselves from the dangers of the heavy metals find in syringe and other disposable materials.
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