MOTIVATIONAL VARIABLES AND SCIENCE TEACHERS AND JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study 9
1.4 Significance of the Study 9
1.5 Research Questions 11
1.6 Null Hypotheses 12
1.7 Assumptions of the Study 12
1.8 Scope of the Study 12
1.9 Definition of Terms 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Framework 14
2.1.1 Origin and Growth of Workers Participation 15
2.1.2 Teachers’ participation in timetable design
and their job performance 17
2.1.3 Teachers’ participation in school finance planning
and their job performance 20
2.1.4 Teachers’ participation in students discipline
policy and their job performance 23
2.1.5 Teachers’ participation in school based promotion
and their job performance 25
2.4 Summary of the Literature Review 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Research Design 29
3.2 Area of the Study 30
3.3 Population of the Study 30
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 31
3.5 Research Instrument 32
3.5.1 Validation of the Instrument 32
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument 33
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 33
3.7 Procedure for Data Preparation 34
3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 34
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 General Description of Research Variables 35
4.2 Presentation of Result 35
4.3 Summary of Findings 44
4.4 Discussion of Findings 44
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of the Study 48
5.2 Conclusions 49
5.3 Recommendations 49
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 50
This study investigated the relationship between motivational variables and teachers performance in secondary school teachers in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Four research questions and four corresponding hypotheses were formulated based on the objectives of the study. Ex post facto design was employed in carrying out the study using 220 secondary school teachers from a population of 252 teachers. Data for the study were generated from a researcher-developed questionnaire titled “Motivational Variables and Job Performance of Secondary School Teachers Questionnaire (MVJPSTQ)”. Mean was used in answering the research questions, while Pearson Produce Moment Correlation was used in testing the hypotheses raised for the study at .05 significance level. All the null hypotheses were rejected showing that participation in time table design, students’ discipline, decision-making process and regular promotion significantly relate with teachers’ job performance. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that government should ensure that teachers are trained regularly to increase their job performance and job satisfaction. Government through the Ministry of Education should ensure that school environments are conducive, conflict free, and secure for both teachers and students to enhance job satisfaction.
1.1 Background of the Study
The ultimate process of education could be simplified as a meaningful interaction between the teacher and the taught. The teacher thus plays a direct and crucial role in moulding a learner towards achieving life goals. Since a teacher is a role model for the students, job satisfaction of teachers become very vital in the field of education. Often, most teachers do not consider occupational variables before entering into the teaching profession. This sometimes has positive or negative influence on the job satisfaction of the teachers.
Some secondary school teachers had expressed dissatisfaction with their work due to lack of motivation by the school principal and their employer. This dissatisfaction has resulted in poor performance by the teachers. It also has been revealed that teachers feel dissatisfied in school environments that do not provide opportunities for teacher effective performance (Conley, Bas-Isaac and Brandon, 2008). These problems, coupled with the challenges of global economy pose a major concern to the government and Ministries of education.
The performance of teachers is assessed in terms of teacher efficacy and teacher’s use of time in teaching and on discipline. They acquire knowledge of people and situations, know-how, in the form of skills, practices and attitudes. Teacher efficacy and time-use, and students’ learning efficacy and attainment test scores are assumed as dependent variables to assess their relationship to school environment. Teachers develop personal familiarity with students and a school’s social context. They also learn to design responsive instructional programmes, create a classroom learning community and the development of a professional identity. The teacher broadens and deepens their subject matter knowledge for teaching, while they expand responsibilities and develop leadership skills (Morries, 2008). The teacher understanding of the curriculum she/he is teaching will determine her/his success as a classroom teacher. The responsibilities of supervision allocated to teachers are presumed. They include extra curricular activities like games and sports, debates, fieldtrips, wildlife clubs, etc. These provide numerous learning opportunities and make a difference to a teacher (Ezati, 2010).
READ ALSO:A STUDY OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TO SCIENCE SUBJECT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of managers for inspiring the work force and creating confidence in it. By motivating the work force, management creates, will to work” which is necessary for the achievement of organizational goals (Chhabra, 2010; Cole, 2004). The issue of employee dissatisfaction and related attitude towards work is assuming alarming rate worldwide. The situation is even more serious in developing countries where working conditions are unattractive.
All organizations want to be successful, even in current environment which is highly competitive. Therefore, companies irrespective of size and market strive to retain the best employees, acknowledging their important role and influence on organizational effectiveness. In order to overcome these challenges, companies should create a strong and positive relationship with its employees and direct them towards task fulfillment (Ford, 2005). In order to achieve their goals and objectives, organizations develop strategies to compete in highly competitive markets and to increase their performance. Nevertheless, just a few organizations consider the human capital as being their main asset, capable of leading them to success or if not managed properly, to decline. If the employees are not satisfied with their jobs and not motivated to fulfill their tasks and achieve their goals, the organization cannot attain success.
People have many needs that are continuously competing one with another. Each person has a different mixture and strength of needs, as some people are driven by achievement while others are focusing on security. If the managers are able to understand, predict and control employee behaviour, they should also know what the employees want from their jobs. Therefore, it is essential for a manager to understand what really motives employees, without making just an assumption. Asking an employee how he feels about a particular situation does not provide an accurate evaluation of his needs, as the interpretation could distort the reality itself. The closer one gets his perception to a given reality, the higher is the possibility to influence that specific realty. Thus managers can increase their effectiveness by getting a better grasp on the real needs of the employees. In order to increase work effectiveness and performance, it is important to address a number of issues, including increasing motivation among employees, making them feel satisfied- with their job, and increasing their job-related well-being in general. It is against this background that this study sought to examine the role of motivation for effective organizational management.
Teachers who take part in time-table design and preparation are more likely to perform well in their teaching profession. This would offer the teacher to put his/her lecture period as it pleases him/her.
The leadership behaviour of the principal of the school, conceptualized into five dimensions, is considered to be an important component of the school environment, which do influence teachers’ performance. Teachers in the secondary schools expect their principals to behave in particular ways because of the principals’ statutory leadership roles. The principals on the other hand see themselves as performing their leadership roles in schools as expected of them. However, teacher expected leadership roles of the principal may be different from the actual leadership style or role performance they observe in their principal. Thus, a teacher who does not obtain what he expects from his principal as his academic and the leaders may be unhappy both with the principal and the whole school system. It is with this mind that one wonders what relationship may exist between the expected and the perceived leadership role performance of principals.
Apart from regular training, job security is another occupational variable that is considered the most important variable for job satisfaction. Security includes those features of the job situation which lead to assurances for continued employment, either with the same organisation on or within the same type of work or profession. A teacher sure of his/her job is more likely to be satisfied than he/she who does not have job security. For instance, if a teacher is sure of getting his/her benefits after retirement such a teacher would be highly satisfied with his/her job.
READ ALSO:FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF SCIENCE STUDENTS IN SCHOOLS
Regular promotion is one of the variables that could motivate the employee in any organisation especially when it comes at the appropriate time. Lack of promotion results in frustration, stress, and low productivity for any employee including teachers. Prompt and regular promotion is a form of motivation towards job satisfaction. If a teacher is promoted as at when due, he/she would put in more effort and would be enthusiastic in the performance of his/her work.
Regular payment of salary and other entitlements is very important to every worker and may also have influence on job satisfaction. Money is an important reward for most people though it does not directly satisfy their needs, it is a secondary reinforcement or reward, which induces appropriate behavioural responses so long as it d at some future time to satisfy more basic human needs. It is believed that salary level and pay satisfaction are positively and significantly related and that persons with lower salaries are less satisfied with their pay than persons with higher salaries. Of course the salary levels may depend on educational qualification and work experience. Active involvement in decision-making process is one of the occupational variables that enhances efficiency and high productivity of every worker. Where an employee is part of the decision making body, he feels a sense of belonging. That means where he is a member of the board that takes decision concerning his level of job, and he is privy to such decision and has more privilege to argue in favour of his career, has a tendency to secure his job and bring about job satisfaction.
In view of the foregoing, it appeals to common sense to speculate that occupational variables influence job satisfaction of teachers. Uyai (2006) who conducted a study on the way forward for the new 9.3.4 system of education in Nigeria posits that the system may fail to attain as objective if the welfare of teachers is not given prominence. The author maintained that there is public dissatisfaction on the way and manner in which teachers welfare are being considered by the policy makers. The author also considered that teaching profession, which hitherto was regarded as a “noble profession”, has now been left as a “transit camp”, a “stepping stone” or a “waiting harbour” for people to hold on a greener pasture is found.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor teachers’ performance, especially in public secondary schools has continued to be a controversial issue in the field of education in Nigeria. There are claims that teachers’ performance is a function of the school environmental variables. The universities, colleges of education, State Secondary School Board in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and other educational stakeholders have done their best for producing quality teachers who are expected to perform well. Despite this provision, some teachers still find it difficult as perform at their best. Personal observation by the researcher revealed that some teachers missed their classes as a result of indiscipline among student poor teaching environment, and large class sizes and so on. Similarly, there are series of complains about some teachers not giving and marking assignments, which may be as a result of large class size. Studies have variously linked this inadequate performance of teachers to the school environment. The Ministry of Education and education stakeholders are not certain of the learning environment in all secondary schools. The nature of library facilities, principal’s leadership style, class size, reward system, school discipline, teacher- student and school location available in each school, and how it impact on the performance of teacher all have key relationships. Teachers in all secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State need good school environmental variables to become effective teaching professionals.
The question therefore is, what is the relationship between teachers’ performance and motivational variables such as teachers’ participation in timetable design; participation in school finance planning; teachers’ participation in students discipline policy and teachers’ participation in school based promotion and their job performance in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to determine the mean difference in job performance of secondary school teachers based on occupational variables in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State specifically, this study determined:
- Teachers’ participation in timetable design and their job performance.
- Teachers’ participation in school finance planning and their job performance.
- Teachers’ participation in students discipline policy and their job performance.
- Teachers’ participation in school based promotion and their job performance.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Generally, it is believed that the outcome of this study would add as existing knowledge and influence current theories of learning. It would provide knowledge on the occupational variables that influence job satisfaction of public and private secondary school teachers. In addition to such theoretical significance, the outcome of this study would all have empirical significance by providing empirical data, which may guide future studies into job satisfaction and occupational variables. It would also be of help to students, teachers, counsellors, educational planners, business organisations, managers of institutions, state educational boards, Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State Ministry of Education, National Union of Teachers, the university communities and the future researchers.
Furthermore, the findings would be useful to teachers’ choice of career and to ascertain whether their present career is realistic and national. A knowledge of the occupational variables that influence job satisfaction would be used in determining whether the workers or teachers are placed on jobs to the best advantages both to the workers and the employer.
The findings of this study would be of benefit to managers of secondary schools in that they would be able to identify the management practices that enhance job satisfaction. Ministry of Education may use the findings to develop human resource development initiatives. It would also be of value in recruitment since the skills qualities required on the job are specified. Information about occupational variables that influence job satisfaction would serve as basic guides in any training scheme for the state Secondary Education Board and National Union of Teachers in general.
The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to the guidance counsellors as they would have enough information and guidelines on how to counsel those teachers who are dissatisfied with their job.
Business organisations would benefit from the findings because the employed graduates that were educated on the choice or occupational career might contribute intelligently to the growth of the organisation. This would enhance effective delivery of the employee’s services.
These findings would also serve as an “eye-opener” by providing issues and information which would serve as feedback to counsellors about employees as their behaviour on the job. It is the hope of the researcher that this study would contribute immensely to the result of other studies so far conducted on job satisfaction especially in the teaching service.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions gave direction to this study:
- What is the relationship between teachers’ participation in timetable design and their job performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers’ participation in school finance planning and their job performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers’ participation in students discipline policy and their job performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers’ participation in school based promotion and their job performance?
1.6 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ participation in timetable design and their job performance.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ participation in school finance planning and their job performance.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ participation in students discipline policy and their job performance.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ participation in school based promotion and their job performance.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
This research covered all public (government) secondary schools in Akwa Ibom North-East Senatorial District. The study, however, was delimited to teachers in secondary schools only. Furthermore, the study only examined the difference in job performance of secondary school teachers based on occupational variables such as teachers’ participation in timetable design, teachers’ participation in finance decision; teachers’ participation in students discipline policy and regular promotion in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
In this study, the following terms were defined based on the researcher’s use.
Active Involvement in Decision-Making: This is the degree to which an employee take part effectively in the administration of the organisation where he/she works.
Teachers’ Participation in Time Table Design: This refers to the involvement of teachers in the allotment of time for each subject for every teacher.
Participation of Teachers in Finance Decision Making: This refers to the involvement of teachers in the school’s financial decision making.
Participation of Teachers in Student Discipline Policy: This refers to the involvement of students in setting rules and plans on how students should be punished and what constitute offense(s).
Teachers’ Participation in School-based Promotion: This refers to the involvement of teachers in the internal promotion of teachers in the school.
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