|TABLE OF CONTENT|
|Table of content||viii|
|List of tables’||xii|
|Operational Definitions of Terms||xvi|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of problem||10|
|1.3||Objectives of the study||18|
|1.7||Significance of the study||23|
|1.8||Scope of the study||25|
|Chapter two: Review of Related Literature|
|2.2||Critical areas of Management in Private school||36|
|2.2.2||Financial contributions of parents/NGOs/Govt.||37|
|2.2.5||Boarding School System||48|
|2.2.6||Staff welfare and development/condition of service||51|
|2.2.8||Planning of Educational/Extra Curr. Programmes||56|
|2.2.9||Communication in Private Secondary Schools||58|
|2.3||The Goals of Secondary Education in Nigeria||59|
|2.3.1 Historical background of secondary education||60|
|2.3.2 Management and ownership||61|
|2.3.3 Government take-over||62|
|2.4||Private involvement in education||65|
|2.5||Who should fund education||68|
|2.1.2 Equating Benefit and cost of Education||77|
|2.6||Budgeting in Private Secondary School||84|
|2.7||Method of Financing Education||88|
|2.7.1||Financing Educational Institutions||98|
|2.7.2||Financing Individual’s Education||91|
|2.8||Small business finance||93|
|2.8.4||Other sources of financing||102|
|Chapter three: Research Methodology|
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Techniques||114|
|3.8||Reliability of Instrument||119|
|3.9||Administration of questionnaire||119|
|3.10||Method of data analysis||120|
Chapter Four: Data Analysis, Result and Discussion
|4.1||Opinions of stakeholders on the impact funding on the|
|management of private secondary schools||12|
|4.1.1||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding on|
|Students’ enrolment into private secondary schools||122|
|4.1.2||Opinions of stakeholders on Impact of funding on|
|Staff condition of service||127|
|4.1.3||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding|
|Contributions of Parents, NGO, and government||132|
|4.1.4||Opinions of stakeholders on Impact of delayed|
|Fees payment on the planning of educational|
|4.1.5||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding|
|On teachers turnover||142|
|4.1.6||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding|
|On communication in private secondary schools||143|
|4.1.7||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding|
|On staff development||151|
|4.1.8||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding on|
|Provision of educational facilities||156|
|4.1.9||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding on|
|Students welfare in private schools||162|
|4.1.10||Opinions of stakeholders on impact of|
|Funding on operation of boarding schools||168|
|4.1.11 Opinions of stakeholders on impact of funding|
|On the provision of security||173|
|4.2||Analysis of Hypotheses testing||177|
|4.3||Summary of hypotheses testing||202|
|4.4||Summary of major findings||206|
|4.6||Implications of the findings||217|
Chapter five: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation
|5.4||Suggestions for further Studies||226|
|Appendix A||–||Main Instrument||237|
|Appendix B||–||List of Schools for study||250|
1.1 Background to the Study
The history of modern education in Nigeria could be traced to the efforts of
private organizations, especially the Christian Missionary Socieities. Ayodele
(2004) confirmed emphatically that „one of the incontrovertible facts in the history
of Nigerian education is that the first schools, whether primary, secondary or
teacher training, were set up as private institutions.‟ In fact it took the then
colonial government several decades after the first private schools had emerged
before delving into the enterprise of education. Although Fafunwa (1974) affirms
that „the missionaries without exception used the school as a means of
conversion”. There is no doubt that the schools established during these periods
served as a springboard for the emergence of nationalized government schools in
The issue of government neglect of educational sector is not a new
phenomenon, for as Fafunwa (1974:92) postulates:
“Up to 1882, the colonial government in Nigeria paid little or no attention to the educational needs of the people and the field was left entirely to the missions. This period can therefore be justifiably termed the era of exclusive Christian missionary education in Southern Nigeria”
During this period, the Church Missionary Society (CMS), The Western Methodist
Missionary Society, The Roman Catholic Mission, The United Presbyterian
Church of Scotland, The Qua Iboe Mission, The Primitive Methodist Missionary Society and the Based Missions, firmly established themselves with each having a school for teaching their devotees. In addition to the teaching of their religious doctrines, Fafunwa (1974) confirms that „subjects like carpentry, bricklaying, ginnery and agriculture were taught‟ especially, at missionary schools located in places like Abeokuta, Onitsha, Lokoja and Calabar in 1876. The Roman Catholic Mission established the famous TUPO, that is Industrial School for delinquents near Badagry. By the end of 1912, there were already ninety-one mission schools as against government‟s fifty-nine schools in Southern Nigeria. Below is a tabular presentation of schools owned by each of the missions and the government:
Table 1.1 NUMBER OF SCHOOLS OWNED BY EACH OF THE MISSIONS AND THE GOVERNMENT BY 1912
|AGENCY||NUMBER OF SCHOOLS|
|Church Missionary Society||27|
|United Church of Scotland||19|
|Roman Catholic Mission||36|
|Qua Iboa Mission||1|
|United Nation African Church||2|
Source: Fafunwa, A.B. (1974) History of Education in Nigeria, pg. 97
The demand for post-primary education by Southern Nigerians according to Fafunwa (1974) found expression in the founding of the C.M.S. Grammar School, Lagos in 1859 by a Nigerian clergyman trained in Sierra Leone and England, the
Revd T.B. Macaulay. The school, it was said „was influenced more by the wealthy Lagosians who were mostly ex-slaves from Sierra-Leone, than by the C.M.S mission under which Macaulay served. Therefore, in addition to corporate organization‟s participation in school establishment in the early history of modern education in Nigeria, private individual also played significant role in schools establishment particularly in the southern part of Nigeria.
In the Northern part of Nigerian also, private involvement in education could be said to be characterized by Islamic activities. According to Fafunwa, (1974) „the first thing a Muslim community did was to build a mosque and used the premises or courtyard as a Quaranic School. However, what could be said to be the first modern private school in the north was established in Lokoja, the present capital of Kogi state in 1865 by one Dr. Baikie of the C.M.S. where instructions were given in Hausa and Nupe languages. In 1898, the C.M.S. succeeded in penetrating the core north and established the first private school known as “Home Schools” in Zaria. Although all the private schools were later taken over by the government inline with her indiginisation policy. Private individuals were later granted the right of participation in schools establishment. Today, each state in Nigeria has over two hundred (200) private secondary schools operating along side with those of government. The lists of private secondary schools in selected states for this study are included as appendix „C‟.
On the issue of funding, though the work for education begun in 1840 in Lagos colony, the idea of grant-in-aids to voluntary agencies did not begin until
1877 and the grant only totaled to #200 (two hundred pound) to each of the three missionary bodies, the Anglican Church Missionary Society, The Wesley Methodist and the Roman Catholic Missions (Fafunwa, 1974). In the year 1882, the assistance was increased to #600 per annum. In the same year, the Educational Ordinance of 1882 introduced new approaches that schools established by government became responsibility of government to maintain and financed. A central board of Education that was to recommend the reception of grant-in-aid by schools was also set up. The conditions of buildings and teachers‟ certificates were to be satisfied by the board. Another Ordinance in 1926 introduced new guidelines for grants-in-aids which classified schools into four status as each class will mirror the level of efficiency and tone of schools which would in turn influence the amounts of grants-in-aid to be given.
The availability of funds determines the success of planning and management of education in Nigeria to enable implementation of policies. The financing of education has been a controversial issue since the inception of modern education. Nigeria had only met between 8% and 11% allocation to education within the last years. Even the money allocated is concentrated to public or government owned schools at the detriment of private schools, which was not the case when education started in Nigeria.
The concept of Funding and Management are two interwoven terminologies that can hardly be broken. This is because wherever fund is mentioned, the need for proper management cannot be overruled, either because it
is hardly in sufficient supply or it needs to be properly and accountably managed. This is why Fayol‟s (1961) statement on management where he said that “to manage is to forecast and plan, organize, command, coordinate and control” has not only keep making an impact on every human endeavor, but it also served as a springboard for several other management scientists who have adapted it for more elaboration and clarity due to development. In more recent times, Gordon, Mondy, Sharplan, (1990:17) similarly defined management as the process of getting things done through the efforts of other people and that the management process consists of four functions: planning, organizing, influencing and controlling. According to these writers, a function is a type of work activity, which can be identified and distinguished from other works, and each management function involves decision making. The management process, in the context of the foregoing definitions of management, connotes the sequence or series of mutually inter-related tasks or work activities (i.e. functions), which are usually undertaken in order to achieve organizational goals. In essence therefore, the management process involves the systematic and sequential execution of the mutually inter-related work activities of planning, organizing, influencing, controlling, and decision-making. Each of these work activities or functions is discussed in turn and in the context of their inter-relationship.
Planning is the process of determining in advance what should be done, the means for doing it and how it should be done. In planning for his organization, a manager will first survey the present conditions prevailing in the organization after
which he sets goals for what need to be done, before working out the means and ways of realizing the stated goals.
The meaning of organization or organizing as a process was briefly distinguished from organizations as a social entity. As explained, organizing is the process of arranging the people and resources available in an organization in the best possible way that will enable the organization achieve its objectives. Once the manager has identified what need to be done and has also set out the objectives, he must next work out the resources and types of work activities that will be required to achieve the set objectives and people or units in the organization to handle activities. Organizing therefore requires that the manager should not only have the ability to do these things, but he needs to be trained in management.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Private school has been known for a long time to be a pacesetter in the provision of sound and qualitative education. This fact has not only been established by various research findings but also from attestation by well meaning Nigerians. The beginning of modern education in Nigeria according to Fafunwa, (1974) is traceable only to private schools through the missionaries. These were the periods when education was solely financed by its operators, and high moral
standard, educational achievement, good educational environment and availability of virtually all educational materials needed were the tradition in education. In the 1970s however, the government of Nigeria took over the management of education with the aim of providing education for its citizens. The government did this for sometimes until it discovered that financing education should not be the responsibility of government alone. Therefore, government invited the private individuals and corporate organizations to partner with it in the provision of education. In other words, private individuals or corporate organizations are to collaborate with government to finance and run education. This is by no mean a big task.
It is widely believed that the private school through sound management has been able to create room for more students to go to school, provide quality education, eradicate cultism, discourge teachers strike through the maintainance of labour agreement thereby bringing stability to the system. The question is, how has private schools system been able to do this? How does it get its fund to carry-out all of these assignments? The Federal Government in its National Policy on Education asserted that relevant sectoral bodies such as Education Tax Fund ,Industrial Training Funds and National Science and Technology Fund have been established to ease the financial challenges of education in Nigeria. The policy however, remained silent on whether private schools could also access these funds to manage their operation. As a matter of fact, Onah (2011) reported the Nigeria‟s Minister of State for Education in the New Nigeria Newspaper of
Monday 26th August, 2011, as saying “No Intervention Fund for Private Schools”. In the light of this obvious situation, the private school has no other means of funding except fees charged to parents.
1.3 Objectives of the study:
The objectives of this study are:
- to examine the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of school fees on enrolment of students in Private Secondary Schools;
- to determine the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on general conditions of service of staff of Private Secondary Schools;
- to examine the opinions of stakeholderson on the impact of financial contributions of parent, individuals, NGOs and Government on the management of Private Secondary Schools;
- to examine the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of delayed payment of school fees by parents on planning of educational programmes and extra-curricular activities and its implementation in Private Secondary Schools;
- to examine the opnions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on the teachers‟ turnover in the Private Secondary Schools;
- to determine the opnions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on communication in and out of school in Private Secondary Schools;
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions this study aimed at providing answers to:
- What are the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of school fees on the enrolment of students in Private Secondary Schools?
- What are the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on the general condition of services of staff of Private Secondary Schools?
- What are the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of parents, individuals, NGO and Government financial contributions on the management of Private Secondary Schools?
- What are the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of delay in school fees payment by parents on the planning of educational programmes and extra-curricula activities and its implementation in Private Secondary Schools?
1.7 Significance of the study
This study is very significant to the body of knowledge because, a search into the field of educational planning and administration reveals that not much work has been done in the area of funding in private schools generally. This study will contribute greatly into the ever growing and rich repertoire of educational administration and planning collection of literatures as a body of knowledge in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in particular and the nation in general.
Secondly, the study is significant to all stakeholders in the operation of private school system in Nigeria, which include those who intend to establish one, those who patronize and those who are concerned with its administration
and planning. This is because many people believe that opening of private school is a business venture and therefore, whoever is going into it should be able to finance it. Little did they know that if schools are to be handled for profit making purpose, very few people will be able to afford them, thereby making the purpose of giving education to the people defeated. The study will therefore, enable people to know how private schools in general and private secondary school in particular are been planned, available resources managed, and funds are generated to meet the needs. It will enable interested practitioner and those already in it to know that, though a little profit may be made from running a school like every other business venture, it is all the same not intended for profit making but to bridge the gap in the provision of qualitative education in Nigeria.
- What are the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on teachers‟ turnover in Private Secondary Schools?
- What are the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on communication in Private Secondary Schools in Nigeria?
The following hypotheses were formulated and tested for this study:
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on students‟ enrolment in Private Secondary Schools
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of the stakeholders on the impact of funding on the general conditions of services of staff in
Private Secondary Schools.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of financial contribution of parents, individuals, NGO and Government in the management of Private Secondary Schools
- There is no significant difference in the response of stakeholders on the impact of delay in fees payment on planning of educational programmes and implementation in Private Secondary Schools
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the impact of funding on teachers‟ turnover in Private Secondary Schools in Nigeria.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of stakeholders on the impact of funding on communication in Private Secondary Schools in Nigeria.