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TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study examined the influence of home environment on students’ academic performance in the selected secondary schools. Academic attainment is an important parameter used in measuring students’ success or failure in a particular subject in school. Success, in an educational institution is measured by academic performance. Poor performance of Secondary School students has become a common concern of parents, legislators, teachers, counselors and psychologist. According to Bell (2002), parents devote a lot of resources to their children’s education because they believe that good academic performance will provide a stable future for them. The areas of concentration were parents and students, social demographic factors, and other related factors. There has been continuous outcry from stakeholders against poor performances of students in Senior Secondary School Examinations in Nigeria.
- Background of the study
Academic attainment is an important parameter used in measuring students’ success or failure in a particular subject in school. Success, in an educational institution is measured by academic performance.Poor performance of Secondary School students has become a common concern of parents, legislators, teachers, counsellors and psychologist. According to Bell (2002), parents devote a lot of resources to their children’s education because they believe that good academic performance will provide a stable future for them. Uwaifo (2008) attributes the cause of poor performance of children to a combination of personal and institutional factors. The personal factors include the level of individual’s intelligence, knowledge and ability while the institutional factors are family or parental influence. Olayinka (2009) pointed out that the family is the bedrock of the society and reported that a stable and well developed childhood can be guaranteed by a stable family. The current poor economic status of most parents and families in the country has exposed children to undesirable challenges that have negatively affected their academic performance in school.Whatever may be the reason for these poor performances should constitute a cause for concern because students’ academic performance plays an important role in producing best quality graduates who will become great leaders and manpower for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development. Several indicators such as study habits, self-concept, school environments, teachers’ qualification and teaching strategies, government, parents’ social class and parents’ educational status, parents’ inputs have been identified as factors responsible for students’ poor academic performance (Ella, Akpabio & Samson-Akpan, 2015;Aremu&Sokan, 2003)Apart from the aforementioned, family type and family size have not been given adequate attention in various regions of Cross River State and these may contribute positively or negatively to a student’s academic performance. Students in secondary schools are being encouraged to study government irrespective of which field of study the students wishes to pursue in future. This is so because this subject enables the student to be abreast with the country’s policies and activates leadership potentials in students. Moreover, there is hardly any endeavour to any venture where government is not being practiced. It is needed for political and economic developments, which are the two main ideologies, in addition to technology that govern any nation. There is documented evidence of influence of family size on students’ academic performance in various subjects in school (Odok 2013). The studies of Odok (2013), Eamon (2005), and Eristwhistle (1986), attest that small family sizes are linked higher educational attainment. Family size in the context of this study refers to the total number of children in a child’s family in addition to the child himself. Large numbered families whether rich or poor are difficult to maintain, they are characterized with a high number of children, rowdiness and this does not create convenience for learning. They also create in the upbringing of children some identified problems such as feeding, poor clothing, insufficient funds, and lack of proper attention for children, disciplinary problems and malnutrition which impact negatively on children academic performance Eristwhistle (1986), stated that studies carried out in Scotland found that, children with relatively small size families performed better in verbal and non-verbal tests, than children from large family size in the same test. This according to him is because children from large families have less frequent interactions with adults. Similarly, parental attention by parents declines as the number of sibling’s increases and latter born children perform less well than their earlier born siblings. The menace of academic failure among the young school graduates has stared both the government and stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man power resources. Most students in secondary school experience academic problem that manifests itself in the form of academic poor performance. Many researchers have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of secondary school students. Adesehinwa (2013) reported effect of family type and poor funding on students’ academic achievement; Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013) reported lack of good home foundation for pupils as cause of poor performance by students; Achieng (2012) found home factors, student factors and institutional capacity as the causes while Adesehinwa and Aremu (2010) posited that factors resident in child, family, society, government and the school may be composite causative effects for these downtrend; they, however concluded that there is a need for each of these variables to be considered extensively, hence the focus of this study to critically consider influence of home on academic performance of secondary school students. Other studies showed that the level of family cohesion (Caplan et al, 2002 cited in Diaz, 2004), and family relationships (Buote, 2001) proved themselves capable of predicting performance. Over a period of time, it has been observed that students exposed to the same lessons by the same teachers perform differently when they are evaluated (Adesehinwa, 2013). This shows that outside the school environment, other factors influence students’ academic performance. Also differences in the academic performances of gifted and non gifted children cannot be traced to school environment (Adesehinwa and Aremu, 2010). Hence, many other uncontrolled variables can be responsible for academic performance of students generally, secondary school students inclusive. Schiefelbaum and Simmons (2000) cited by Adell, (2002) consider family background the most important and most weighty factor in determining the academic performance attained by the student. Among family factors of greatest influence are social class variables and the educational and family environment. Emeke (1984) stressed that the environmental condition and the nature of social interaction that goes on in the family may have some positive or negative influence on the academic achievement of a child. One of the tasks of Education is to train young people to become useful members of the society and this training begins at home in the informal way. The home of the child is the first place he/she enters when born into the world by parents. A home is a place where pupils live with their parents or guardian and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the pupils begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Collins, 2007). The home influences the child at the most earliest possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole life of the child. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in self worth and academic performance (Ekanem, 2004). The family, being a powerful influence on the child and its importance as a primary agent of socialization could in no doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the child depending on the social climate in the family. Variance in psycho-social emotional fortification in the family background could be an indicator to high or low academic performance of students, bearing in mind the intervening effect of high and low socio-economic status and emotional stability of students which is a pre-requisite to academic achievement (Adebule, 2004). This is because psychological problems are potential sources of trouble with learning. It is therefore against these backgrounds that this study sought to determine influence of home environment on academic performance of secondary school students in Adamawa State. The environment is the immediate surrounding in which the pupils find themselves. It is also referred to as the physical and psychological conditions that affect children (Ogbemudia and Aiasa, 2013). The parents or guardian of the students are responsible for providing the right home environment that will facilitate effective learning for their wards. Furthermore, in pupil’s home environment, some factors that influences their academic performances include: parental educational background, occupation, economic status, marital status and home location; family size and peer group.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The home environment means the family background of the students; this includes all the human and material resources present at the home that affects the student’s education and living, such as the parent’s level of education, their occupation, socio-economic status and socializing facilities available in the house. Thus, the home is the basic institution for providing the child’s primary socialization and laying the educational foundation for the child upon which the other agents of socialization are built. The education received by a child from parents and significant others at home is most likely to have a highly significant and dominant effects on the behaviors of the child later in life. What the child learns at home and how his/her family motivates him/her towards education contributes to the child’s success or failure at school. Even though, environment also plays a very remarkable role in the life and educational success of every individual. It is in view of the above that the researcher decide to investigate the perception of teachers and student on the consequences of family size and home location on academic performance.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the perception of teachers and student on the consequences of family size and home location on academic performance. But to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to investigate the following specific objectives;
- To ascertain the effect of family size on the academic performance of secondary school students
- To investigate the relationship between family size and home location on student academic performance
- To ascertain the impact of home location on student academic performance
- To examine the consequences of home location on student efficiency in school
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the researcher formulated the following research hypotheses
H0: family size does not have any effect on the academic performance of secondary school students
H1: family size does have an effect on the academic performance of secondary school students.
H0: there is no significant relationship between family size and home location on student academic performance
H2: there is a significant relationship between family size and home location on student academic performance.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to parent and teachers in both public and private secondary schools across the country, as the study seek to explore the consequences of family size and home location on student academic performance. The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further studies. Finally the work will be of importance to student, teachers, lecturers, academia’s and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and contribute to knowledge.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the perception of teachers and student on the consequences of family size and home location on academic performance of secondary school student. In the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: most private school refused entry and access to the student as the term it disruption of the academic time table.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In the United Kingdom, those attending university are termed “students” while “pupil” refers to an attendee of a lower educational institute.
Family size may be considered from two perspectives. At the individual (micro) level, it defines one aspect of an individual’s family background or environment. As such, it represents a potential influence on the development and accomplishments of family member.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.