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Perception Of Urban Beautification Program

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Urban areas are economic growth engines as well as the location of a complex network of activities essential to the basin human function of living and working (Mattingly, 1995). The lure of employment and the perception of a better quality of life in cities are both significant socioeconomic pull factors (Harris & Todaro, 1970; World Bank, 2007).

The massive increase in urban population has resulted in an unprecedented crisis in urban shelter provision, commercial and industrial space, quality health care, and a conducive environment. Every year, the world’s urban population grows by about 70 million people, the equivalent of seven new megacities. These individuals require shelter, employment, and urban services. People have the right to live in a clean and well-maintained environment.

making it easy to agree that the clean-up of urban areas is essential to building a lasting community. The appearance of a neighborhood influences who moves there, how long they stay, and ultimately determines the future of that neighborhood. Residents may be inspired to work together to rebuild their community by picking up trash, maintaining the landscape, and demolishing abandoned buildings. A community clean up may be necessary to revitalize neighbourhoods that have lost their appeal as desirable destinations. Malcolm Johnson (September 5, 2013).

Urban beautification begins with identifying the cosmetic changes that can be made in a specific neighborhood and then working with residents to improve the community. Setting aside specific days for

Residents picking up trash or participating in some sort of area refurbishment is critical to making a better place to live. Furthermore, public officials bear a portion of the blame and should take policy initiatives to improve the regions they represent. Policymakers can help rebuild a community by establishing programs to repair streets, sidewalks, and demolish abandoned buildings. To ensure that a rehabilitated area remains in the best possible condition, lawmakers must also enforce ordinances that ensure neighborhood maintenance and cleanliness.

In addition to providing a more appealing living environment, beautification may instill a greater sense of pride in residents. Despite the fact that

Although there is no quick fix for the many problems that exist in cities, a person who lives in a clean environment may be more optimistic about the future. Living in a place that is constantly improving may just inspire people to do the same in their own lives. The Neighborhood Beautification Program was created to engage communities in beautifying underutilized spaces throughout the City. This program complements the City’s increased efforts to clean and revitalize underutilized public spaces.

Urban areas in developing countries are constantly under pressure from a growing population. In an era of economic reforms, liberalization, and globalization, cities, metropolises, and megacities are emerging as centers of domestic and international investment. This has created opportunities for technologists and other professionals.

Professionals in planning will guide and develop the process of planned development and monument. One of the primary goals of town planning is to create a functional, efficient, and visually appealing environment for living, working, recreation, and worship. Many of today’s urban structures, however, were never planned; for example, Ibadan city was built at a time when planning awareness was significantly lower than it is today.

According to Agbola (1987:89), Ibadan was either poorly planned or not planned at all. A large portion of the city appears to be unplanned and dominated by commercial activity. Those who engage in trading activities set up shop in open spaces or along major roads to display their wares. They occasionally cover the front of

In some cases, the traders display goods very close to the road setbacks, while others display goods in a residential building along the road to shops. Containers and umbrellas serve as shops for those who occupy open spaces, displaying their wares. In other words, physical development standards in Oyo state are easily violated, and “there is no approval for change of use of open sites for utilities and services” (Agbola 2009).

A program that protects and seeks to restore the beauty inherent in a specific environment, in this case the urban center, is referred to as urban beautification. Most developing countries around the world invest in urban beautification of cities that have deteriorated or decayed in order to improve the quality of the environment and the quality of life.

for the purpose of bringing out nature’s beauty. There are various types of urban beautification, such as the construction of car parks, the provision of proper refuse dumps for dirt to avoid littering, the construction of bridges to improve transportation, the construction of walkways, sculpture decoration, ornamentation, and greening of the environment, and many others. The underlying goal of carrying out these projects is to give parts of cities a facelift, that is, development, and to make the immediate environment appealing to investors, among other things (Bilgili BC and Gokyer E 2012).

In the case of Nigeria, the Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN) ruled some states of the federation before being replaced by the All Progressive Congress (APC) in the most recent general election.

As part of its political agenda in 2015, was carrying out beautification projects. This is to give the states they govern a facelift by planting greens (flowers, trees) and expanding old major roads to improve movement in the respective states and the country.

As a result, these two types of urban beautification are critical to the current Ibadan urban study. However, only a small part of the state capital was covered.

In the case of the Ibadan region, the pattern of urban beautification varies across the entire metropolis. Eleyele, Onireke, Aleshiloye, Gate, uch, Mokola, Challenge are more road expansion projects, while Ring-Road, Gate, Dugbe, Bodija, Toll Gate, and Akinyemi feature greenery planting. In any case, certain structures would have to be demolished before any form of beautification could be implemented. As a result, social and economic activities, among others, would have suffered. As a result, any containers, kiosks, or other structures built in open spaces near the road were subject to demolition. More than 400 structures were demolished in designated commercial areas of Ibadan, including residential buildings that encroached on roads and illegal structures built by dwellers and traders. The purpose of the presence study is to confirm Ibadan metropolis dwellers’ perceptions of urban beautification programs in Ibadan metropolis.



Most urban areas face numerous challenges, including the growth of illegal unauthorized structures, which violate the standard offset backs to roads, high tension power lines, and unauthorized conversion of approved use of land to different use(s) that encroaches on open spaces. These are exacerbated by increasing population size and social and economic activity. Ibadan metropolis, as Nigeria’s commercial nerve center and a rapidly urbanizing area, lacks adequate transportation.

Planning and physical layout. Due to the shabby environmental situation of the largest city south of the Sahara, Ibadan was recently classified as one of the dirtiest cities in the world. Kumuyi, 2005.

Oyo, on the other hand The state government became interested in urban beautification in order to improve the city’s appearance. As a result, illegal structures along a specific road were demolished. The spillover effect is the displacement of traders who occupied illegal shops and roadside spaces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the types of urban beautification that are used in Ibadan and how the residents perceive them. These are examined in terms of changes in the rate of security, road accessibility, loss of buildings/shops, and personal damage to the city.



The purpose of this study is to assess public perception of urban beautification programs in Ibadan. The specific goals are as follows:

1. To evaluate urban beautification programs in the Ibadan metropolis.

2. To investigate the residents of Ibadan metropolis’ perceptions of urban beautification programs.

3. To investigate the effects of urban beautification programs on the livelihood of the study area’s residents.


1. Where can I find urban beautification projects in the study area?

1. What are the different types of urban beautification in Ibadan?

2. Which urban structure was demolished to make way for current urban beautification projects?

3. What is the general public’s opinion of urban beautification in Ibadan?

4. How has the beautification affected the city of Ibadan’s residents?

1.5. Research hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference in residents’ perceptions of urban beautification programs.


The study, which assesses people’s perceptions and attitudes toward urban beautification programs in Ibadan Metropolis, is significant because it is expected to raise people’s awareness of the benefits of city beautification and space in urban areas. The study will help to change people’s and government officials’ attitudes and perceptions of urban beautification programs. It will contribute to better management and maintenance of Ibadan’s cleanliness and beauty.



Ibadan is said to be Africa’s largest indigenous urban city south of the Sahara (Mabogunje, 1968). The city has a total population of 2,550,593 people (National Population Census, 2006). Ibadan is located approximately 145 kilometers north of Lagos at latitude 7° 25′ N of the equator and longitude 3° 54′ E. A network of roads, railways, and air routes connects the city to many towns in Nigeria and its rural hinterland. It is located in South-western Nigeria, near the forest-grassland boundary. The need to develop housing to meet the needs of an increasing population has resulted in the use of floodplains. Lagelu founded it after the destruction of the first settlement near Awotan in the

Local Government Area of Ido (Mabogunje, 1968). This is depicted in figure 1.1 below.

Ibadan, Nigeria’s capital, can be described as a traditional city due to certain characteristics such as a central market, a remarkable social structure, and an unusual pattern of urban-rural migration. The city is Nigeria’s second fastest growing city after Lagos and one of Africa’s largest indigenous urban centers. It has a solid network that connects many Nigerian towns via roads, railways, and air routes. Most traders traveling from Lagos to the northern state via Abeokuta and Sagamu stop in Ibadan before continuing on to their destinations.


Ibadan, an indigenous city, grew organically, with no thought given to effective physical planning. Ibadan has experienced both planned and unplanned growth. The city’s unplanned sector is in the south-eastern part, which is primarily populated by indigenous people. This area accounts for roughly 60% of the total spatial coverage. The non-indigenous sector is a mix of planned and unplanned activities. Planned growth has occurred to varying degrees in the planned areas. The city’s growth is a jigsaw puzzle that is not coordinated within a master plan. It has yet to produce a development strategy. The only tool for controlling development is a layout plan, which is even referred to as a “adopted layout” as a result of the 1978 land use degree.

The trend of The largest use of land in the metropolitan area is still for residential purposes, accounting for approximately 51.39% of total land in the metropolitan area. Only 14.34% of land is used for industrial purposes (Muili 2005). The core area is mostly defined by residential land use, primarily inhabited by the indigenous Ibadan population and early non-Yoruba migrants, as well as a number of newer suburbs. The core area – Beere Labiran, Oje, and so on – where the process of compound disintegration known as growth by fusion can still be seen today (Mabogunje 1968). Commercial activities in Ibadan can be found on the Gbagi-Dugbe axis, the Gate-Iwo road axis, and other axes. Dugbe is Ibadan’s central business district.

1.7.3 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ibadan

The Ibadan people’s traditional occupations have been trading and crafting. The favorable climate encourages farming, as do the natural characteristics of sending and swampy soil. The farming suburb extended for a long distance into the surrounding countryside. Aside from farming, others work for themselves in a variety of occupations such as carpentry, motor mechanics, driving, printing, hairdressing, barbering, and so on.

Trading has played a critical role in the development of Ibadan, resulting in an increase in population and, ultimately, a high standard of living. Because of their strong influence to invade and subdue other settlers for many years, Ibadan has administrative influence over more than half of the entire Yoruba speaking people of Nigeria. The city’s advantageous location has contributed to its prominence.

Political, commercial, educational, industrial, and social activity hub. The scale of activities created a job opportunity and, as a result, influenced people into the city as a whole, which is responsible for a large population and a large geographical area.

Ibadan, on the other hand, is well acquainted with many commercial and merchant banks, administrative offices, and research institutions.

1.7.4 Population Distribution of Ibadan Metropolis

According to the 2006 population census (NPC 2007), Ibadan metropolis has a population of 2,550,590 million people, with a 4.4% annual growth rate. Because females dominate trading activities in the study area, the population is more concerned with the number of females in the study area. The breakdown of the population in the study area is as shown in Table 1.11



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