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ABSTRACT 

Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page————————- i

Certification—————–ii

Dedication————————.iii

Acknowledgement——————-.iv

Abstract————————–v

Table of Content——————–vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction ——————-1

1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant———.4

1.3 Research aim and objectives———.7

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Definition of Inflammation———8

2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation——.8

2.2 Classes of Inflammation———-9

2.3 Types of Inflammation———–.10

2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation—-13

2.4.0 Properties of Mediators———-16

2.4.1 Histamine—————- 18

2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)—- 21

2.4.3 Cytokines——————– 24

2.4.4 Arachidonic acid ————— 30

2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)—— 34

2.4.6 Free Radicals————–.36

2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)———— 37

2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals——. 40

2.4.7.0 Complement system———-. 41

2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system. 45

2.4.7.2 The Kinin System———–. 48

2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system——— 50

2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents——–53

2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 53

2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS—-.55

2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs—-58

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIAL AND METHODS

3.1 Materials—————— 60

3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used——– 60

3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents——61

3.1.3 Animals——————–62

3.2 Methodology——————.63

3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials–63

3.2.2 Extraction——————-.63

3.3 Fractionation—————— 64

3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography———.64

3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extract—————–. 65

3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis——————–.65

3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract—————–.66

3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography———- 71

3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. ——– 72

CHAPTER FOUR

Result———————–.75

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion——————— 79

Conclusion——————— 81

References———————.82

Appendixes——————87

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