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Political instability on the implementation of nigeria policy on secondary school education in edo state

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AU: Focus on Root Causes of Conflict, Political Instability | Human Rights  Watch




A study of political instability on the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary school education in Edo state cannot be fully discussed without briefly highlighting the circumstance  and the environment with which  the  education system operates the settlement  described today as Nigeria started with  annexation of Benin City by John Beecroft  in the year  1951.

Education cannot be divorced from politics because, one of the crucial issues characterized in the relationship between education and politic, is the likelihood for the political powers to use the educational system as the main instrument for promoting the political interest, the values and beliefs of the government in power. This is why any political group that comes into power quickly punches on the educational system by way of promising great expansion and support for education, dictates what the schools should be and not. It is possible that in some cases, the goals and interests which the political powers may want to provide may or may not be ideal for the society. But the educational system by virtue of its political context must follow itself to the new demands of the government in power. Be that as it may, Nigeria as an environment within which our educational system functions today was founded by Mrs. Flora Shaw, a wife of Frederick Lugard.

According to Onwubiko (1973)  ‘Beecroft  intervention in Edo State was the first importance towards the subsequent colonization of Nigeria by British government, on the conquest of Edo, the British government sought to establish and  maintain  a colonial  state in Nigeria. With the introduction of British rule, western education followed suit.

Nigeria came into being in its presents status in 1914, when the two protectorates of northern and southern Nigeria were  amalgamated by Sir Fredrick Lugard. As reported by crowther  (1978).  Florashaw,  the wife  of lord Lugard  suggested in an articles ‘the  time”   of  London  that the several British protectorates  on the Niger are known collectively as Nigeria. In 1947, the British colonial government  divided the country into three regions, the northern, the eastern and the western regions. Each region had its own legislative at the centre  Onwubiko (1983) in 1951 the regions  were granted internal  self –government and  in 1960,  Nigeria gained her independence  from British government.

When Nigeria got her independence  in 1960  there was a consideration about   Nigeria’s union was so sudden and  included widely different groups of people that not only  the British created it but the citizen themselves had doubted whether it could survive  as  a political  entity.

The three government parties in the region were the northern, peoples congress (NPC) in the north. The national council of Nigeria citizens (NCNC) in the east and action Group  (AG)  in the west.

All these inherited and adopted the western style of parliamentary democracy   and educational system, unlike most African states, Nigeria had a viable and diversified economy  with great potentials for development, giving size of its net and  substantial resources.

Bishop Crowther (1979) maintained  that ‘Nigeria appeared in its first ear of  tranquility “yet within less than seven years  of sovereignty , Nigeria was lunged  into a thirty months  civil war. Forty two years after independence Nigeria is yet to be articulate the most  effective peaceful  and acceptable method  of changing its leadership. Over the years  election results in the country were usually greeted with   protest and often  carry the hangovers  of their political  misfortune into the corridor of governance.  The unconstructive criticism of government  in three power made it impossible to achieve the objective of educational civilian political   leadership led the political conditions  that  adversely affected the educational system.

Within  the period, government had promulgated a number of laws, decrees, and  edicts to guide the operation of education ordinance   continue to be used as law and executive  rules in the operation in the country. The  end of civil war in  1970   and  the takeover of schools by various states government  brought with it the introduction of  decrees  and edicts as laws guiding operation of the schools.

The east central states (ECS) inevitable took the lead by promulgating   its public education edict the other states   in time made one amendment or another as the need arose. The edict of the east and Midwestern states replaced completion. The old laws had some common now features namely a unified teaching services.  The takeover of schools by the state government. The establishment of school board and the abolition or educational functions of the   local authorities

In another development, the federal government, in 1979 constitution placed education on serious list because of its dividing resources.  The constitution spelt out of education was the full responsibility of the federal states and local government. it also  empowered the federal ministry of education to control and monitor education. Similarly, the education Act of 1985 cited as the education decree No. 16 of 1985. A committee was appointed to advice” the government. Following the report of the committee decree No 31 of 1999, I established, the national primary education to affect the new policy on managing and funding primary education. The decree endorsed the establishment of poor management levels. The decree also spelt out the statutory allocation by the three tiers thus federal. 65%, state 20% and local government 15%. All states of the federation enacted relevant edicts to reflect the current trend. Each state has its own state primary education Board.


According to the national policy on education (2001) “education in Nigeria is more private enterprises, it is a huge government venture that has witnessed a progressive evolution of government complete and dynamic intervention and active participation” in the new swatch editorial of December 12 2001:3 it states that Nigeria funded about thirty four thousand, two hundred and forty (34, 240) primary schools with an enrolment of eleven million, five hundred and forty thousand one hundred and seventy eight (11,540, 178) pupils and has 3, 105, 239 secondary school student and fifty (50) Tertiary  institution. Even at this, we cannot pretend that it is well with our educational system. This is because of political instability. The root I our educational system has gone too far.

Political instability has hindered effective implementation of the national policy on education by inadequate provision of resources. There an object lack of funds, personnel equipment and infrastructure almost in all secondary school in particular and other higher institutions in general especially in the east. The effect of this is the massive production of scientist who have never seen elaborates engineers who were never in any workshop and graduate that cannot solve problems of their immediate environment. The resulted in educational crisis. A crisis that will continue to stare the nation straight on the face until we rescue education form politics.


The purpose of the study is to highlight the political instability on the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary school education in Edo state. The study will specifically find out the effect of

  • Political instability on the education policies in Nigeria with particular reference to Ovia Local Government.
  • Political instability on the production of teachers in Nigeria.
  • The impact of political instability on assumption.
  • The impact of political instability on the student general performance.
  • To find out the impact of the political instability on examination.


In order to elicit necessary information for the study of the following research question are asked:

  • Does political instability affect educational policies in Ovia Local Government Area?
  • Does political instability affect the teachers productivity in Ovia Local Government Area?
  • Does political instability affect the teachers productivity in Ovia Local Government Area?
  • Does political instability affect the production of quality students.
  • Is examination malpractice linked to political instability on Ovia Local Government Area?



The following hypotheses have been raised to guide the study:

H0:    political instability does not have any significant effect on the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary school education in Edo State.

H1:    political instability have any significant effect on the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary school education in Edo State.



Ukeje (2002) education is our future; He described education as “wheat based, which can carry any nation to her development “centre” education is an instrument  which various nations have devised for their progress. The results of these study will be of immense value to education practitioners and politicians/both civilian  and military regimes) because it will help them identify the problems that hinder the successful implementation of the system of education.


It will make the government find a better way and means to mobiles resources, and to drams up and implement, integrated programmes aimed at coal cost without detriment to qualify provision of education services. The study will help Ovia local government and others to tent itself to the solution of adequate supply of equipment facilities and infrastructures in our secondary schools, the problems of shortage of staff personnel in our schools, particularly secondary schools will receive priority attention by government.

Lastly, it will create new hope of employment for thousand of his country in general who graduate from school through practical learning experience created in our schools.


The study covers political instability on the implementation of Nigeria policy on secondary school education in Edo state especially some of the issue and politics that tend to cause instability since independence. The study will look at how political instability has affected secondary education implementation and suggestions on how to solve such problems.



Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.