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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦3,000.00




This study is to investigate the provision and maintenance of public conveniences in some selected motor park in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The use of motor parks and the importance they play in the sustenance of an urban area cannot be over emphasized as the movement of commuters within and between urban areas is a constant activity. Data for the study were collected from both the park operators and transit users of four motor parks in Jaba Local Government Area. The questionnaires were administered on, park operators and users of public conveniences in the study area. The simple random sampling technique was used to select public toilet operators and users in the study area. The results show that a high percentage of the users of motor parks were not satisfied with the facilities, while it was discovered that the majority of the motor parks were in a state of disrepair thereby needing maintenance. The paper concludes that there is a need to renovate the motor parks and provide good facilities for the users. It also stated that there is a need for a maintenance schedule for each of the motor parks with emphasis on cleaning.



Title Page

Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Research Questions
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Delimitation /scope of study
Limitation of Study

Review of Related Literature

Conceptual Review

Empirical Review

Theoretical Framework

Summary of Literature Review

Research design
Population of Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Research Instrument
Validity of Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis

Data presentation and Analysis
Discussion of Results




                                   CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background of the study

Public space is one that varies depending on the background of the person involved in the study or discussion. Public spaces are the areas around us that we can all use and enjoy. The proportions of the daily hours spent by users depend on the type of the space and the purpose for which it is patronized. Public space may be open. This will include open sport field, beaches, towns’ squares, streets and footpaths, motor parks and markets. On the other hand, public space may also be close or indoor. In this category is town hall. Of significant importance to this study is the motor park as a public space. Motor Park came into existence as a response to the need for central collection points of passengers and goods as commercial activities and population increase (Osaghe 1972). In the recent past however, Motor Park is performing quite a number of other functions in addition to the primary function of acting as a transport terminal. Indeed, very many of this type of public space, especially in large Urban Centers act as the nerve centre of economic activities of where they are located. Parks are therefore where there are concentration of people and economic activities.

Efforts have been made to improve the environmental quality of parks, but it seems the desired results are not produced. One of the reasons for the poor results is that solution offered emanated only from the intuitions of the elected and career officers in government. Such solutions had no input of users. It is considered that enduring solutions to environmental hazards and risks in public space like motor parks which are fundamentally human problems should be sought from the users’ themselves. In essence, the environmental condition of parks are less conducive to human health living. Yet, this is a public space that is patronized by those who earn economic benefit from it daily. With the agglomeration of economic activities and concentration of people in parks, existing environmental service are over-stressed. This is also the condition of environmental amenities in the urban centres in which they are located. The works of Oyebami (1980) and Odunmorayo (2004) on selected parks in Ibadan, Faluyi (1982) and Bakare (1985) on Lagos and Osaghe (1972) on Benin City all in Nigeria confirmed that the solid and liquid waste management system, toilet facilities, drainage system and the general environmental sanitation behaviour of motor park users are all in very poor states. If the above documentation by these researchers is something to go by, the conclusion can be drawn that the environment of motor parks in major urban centres constitutes hazards and risks to users.

People tend to perceive public spaces as any space that no single individual can lay personal claim to, while this might be correct it is misleading because it would imply that public spaces are open spaces. According to (Worpole, K 2006), what makes a space public is not its ownership but the variety of activities that the space could be put to use for. Based on this assumption it would be safe to conclude that majority of the spaces around us with the exception of personal indoor residential spaces could become a public space. A common public space that is found in every urban area in Nigeria is a motor park or bus station and these motor parks vary in their design, nature, environment and services provided. However the differences, they serve a vast majority of the society with a varied cultural background (Abel, F. 2006), stated that a public space can either be a closed space or an open space. The major requirement of any end-user in a motor park is satisfaction and an examination of motor parks will reveal that they comprise of both indoor spaces (offices, shops, restaurant and conveniences) and outdoor spaces (car park, waiting areas) which form public spaces. The importance of a motor park is due to the large number of people that make use of public transport systems and according to (Ogbazi, J.U. 1992) public transport or mass transit is a system in which a greater number of people are moved at a time along principal corridors or routes. The nature and type of motor parks in many developing countries is a far cry from what the best practices should be.

Motor parks are generally linked to transportation using commercial vehicles by offering a place for commuters to come and board vehicles to their place of destination and these could be journeys such as intra-city or inter-city. It is believed that motor parks came into existence as a response to the need for central collection points of passengers and goods as commercial activities and population increase (Osaghe, M. 1972). According to (Onokala, P.C. 2001) the importance of transportation in any given city to its survival cannot be overemphasized as it is responsible for the movement of people in and around the city. The nature and environment of these motor parks often affect the users in various ways particularly in terms of comfort and functionality. A visit to some selected motor parks in Nigeria will show an environment that appears not conducive for commuters and operators.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Hygienic public conveniences are located for the transient population in all areas of intense public activities such as markets, shopping areas, transport terminal, motor parks etc. (Lenason, 2009). It is common practice for people to answer the call of nature in the open field or use so-called “flying toilets”, which results in a poor sanitary, health and environmental situation (Drewko, 2007). In urban centres of developing countries especially in schools, worship centres and motor parks where lots of activities are taking place and people transiting from one point to another, so many ugly things or sights can be seen. Example is seeing a mature man or woman urinating or even defecating publicly, as there is a problem of space provided for these kinds of activities. Public conveniences can bring relief to a society in more ways than one. They enable greater use of public areas, increase foot traffic in commercial areas which boosts local economies; they support recreation and meet basic human rights requirements for sanitation. But while the benefits of a clean, serviceable and well-placed public convenience are many, these benefits can be negated when vandalism, anti-social behaviour and poor hygiene makes uncomfortable. This study will examine availability of toilets and public convenience to transit users in public motor parks and how poor maintenance of this facilities its affect the comforts of the society at large.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the provision and maintenance of public conveniences in some selected motor parks in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The sub objectives are to:

  1. Examine the availability of public conveniences and users comfort in some selected motor parks in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
  2. Examine the problem of providing public conveniences in some selected motor parks in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
  • Examine motor parks in Jaba Local Government with the view of determining their maintenance problems and users perception of public conveniences in the motor parks.
  1. Proffer solutions to the challenges of non-availability and poor maintenance of public conveniences in the motor parks in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions was deemed fit by the researcher to guide the study;

  1. Is there access to public conveniences and users comfort in motor parks in Jaba Local Government Area?
  2. Does the management of public motor parks in Jeba Local Government area run routine maintenance check on their public conveniences?
  3. Are parks operators to be blame on the problem of maintaining public conveniences in some selected motor parks in Jaba Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
  4. What are the perception of transit users and the ministry of environment on public conveniences in Jaba Local Government Area?
  5. What is the way forward in eradicating the problems of public conveniences in Kaduna State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

 For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there is access to public conveniences and users comfort in motor parks in Jeba Local Government Area.

H1there is no access to public conveniences and users comfort in motor parks in Jeba Local Government Area.

H02: the management of public motor parks in Jeba Local Government area do run routine maintenance check on their public conveniences

H2the management of public motor parks in Jeba Local Government area does not run routine maintenance check on their public conveniences

1.6 Significance of the Study

Public conveniences are not only needed for regular purposes but also important during a particular occasion or event (Shamim, 2011). According to Durojaiye as reported by Okiri (2012), Nigerians celebrate anything, especially in the North. However, when they are celebrating, there are no conveniences. According to Somerset (2011) wherever people go, outside of their own home, toilet facilities are needed for the enjoyment of the area by visitors and also residents who may be some distance from their home. They can make a significant impact upon the comfort of individuals and families who visit public spaces as parks and their perception of the area as a desirable place to visit. Therefore the findings of this study will be of great benefits to the Local government authority, ministry of environment, motor parks operators, transit users and the general public. The findings here will also serve as reference materials to scholars with intention to research on related topics.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers problem of provision of public convenience in some selected motor parks in Jeba Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) Availability of Research Material:The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) Time:The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities

1.8 Definition of Terms

Provision: The action of providing or supplying something for use.

Public convenience: A public toilet is a room or small building with toilets that does not belong to a particular household. Rather, the toilet is available for use by the general public, customers, travellers, employees of a business, school pupils, prisoners etc.

Problem: A matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome

Convenience: The state of being able to proceed with something without difficulty.

1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows: Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study



Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.


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