PSYCHO-SOCIAL VARIABLES AND STUDENTS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ICT INTEGRATION/UTILIZATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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1.1 Background of the Study
The topic is concerned with the impact of how psycho-social variables of the students’ can affect the utilization of ICT during teaching and learning process to ensure that the goals of technology utilization in education is archived.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become very important material and has a significant impact on how we see the world and how we live our lives. Today ICT has its place in education and the world cannot undermine ICT. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval. Development is partly determined by the ability to establish a synergistic interaction between technological innovation and human values. The rapid rate at which ICTs have evolved since the mid 20th century, the convergence and pervasiveness of ICTs, give them a strong role in development and globalization (Nwagwu, 2006). ICTs have a significant impact on all areas of human activity (Brakel and Chisenga, 2003).
The utilization of ICT tools can indeed assist students in acquiring some skills as well as enhance their academic performance and the quality of their learning experience. Classroom dialogue can now extend beyond the time and space constraints of class time (Frayer, 1997). Carmen et al., (2003) say that utilization ICT tools in teaching can lead to increased students’ learning competencies and increased opportunities for communication.
Almost all universities in Nigeria are trying to develop the use of information and communication technology (ICT), and especially virtual learning environments (VLEs) to underpin teaching and learning (Saunders 2002, Jenkins et al., 2003,).
With the introduction of information and communication technology, a new era has opened to researchers, academics and secondary school students. This type of education has some roles to play in secondary schools like providing secondary school students with practical and functional knowledge of the computer, the internet and other associated gadgets that will have positive effect on future experience and make them more competent, rational and comfortable in this era of globalization.
Technology helps students to react intelligently to future changes, expand information and live successfully in a changing world.
Technology as a tool for learning enables secondary school students to efficiently and effectively access digital information for the purpose of investigating issues and solving problems. This conventional system helps to accelerate the learning process, increase teachers efficiency and effectiveness and provides remedial instruction and enrichment of material, thus guaranteeing higher quality standards in secondary schools.
These roles suggest that, if conceived as a means and not an end in itself, ICT has the capability to be a powerful teaching and learning tool for the development of secondary education. However, the fact that ICT can, in theory, assist development effort does not mean that it will necessarily do so. In order for ICT to positively foster development goals of secondary education, it must be employed effectively.
Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Technology supports students taking responsibility for their own learning and therefore promotes building the necessary skills to become lifelong learners especially when the students’ attitude is good.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It has been pointed out by Abiri and Daramola (1991) that there is no way a research can be carried out until a problem is recognized, deliberated upon and form in a way it will be useful. The utilization of ICT in the teaching and learning process in Secondary Schools has been an issue that needs to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which ICT integration has impacted on knowledge delivery. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has done her best in building ICT laboratories and equipping them with ICT facilities in secondary schools in some location in Nigeria, but the question is are these ICT facilities being used during the teaching process?
The policy on ICT has been developed which aims at empowering the students with ICT skills and preparing them for global competitiveness and also encouraging capacity building of ICT in the country’s secondary schools. The utilization of ICT has also been made mandatory at some levels of educational institutions through adequate financial provision for tools and resources. In spite of the effort of the Federal Government of Nigeria in promoting ICT integration into teaching and learning in secondary Schools, the attainment of objectives of ICT in these schools seems to suffer some defects as observed from poor performance in ICT utilization among students going to higher institutions. This problem could also be as a result of poor accessibility of ICT resources by the students in secondary schools. If ICT tools are adequately accessed, they will be utilized for both academic and non-academic activities. This will bring about high degree of infusion into the various subjects in the curriculum of secondary Schools. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which ICT facilities are accessed, utilized and integrated into the curriculum of secondary Schools in Nigeria. Expected findings will be significant to students, teachers, policy makers, literature, theory and practice of ICT.
1.3 Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate how different variables affect ICT utilization into secondary schools in Etinan local government area, Akwa Ibom State.
- Determine how self concept affects the integration and utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Etinan L. G. A. Akwa Ibom State.
- Determine the extent peer influence obstruct Integration and Utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A. Akwa Ibom State.
- Determine how social control affect students’ performance towards ICT integration and utilization based on educational background.
- Determine how motivation affects students’ performance towards ICT integration/utilization in secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A. Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Research findings from this study will be beneficial to teachers as it will expose the flaws of the students and the teachers will know what method to use in making sure that the student’s attitude does not deprive them of utilization of the provided ICT materials in the classroom. Such flaws when found can form the basis for students’ improvement on utilization of ICT tools in the classroom.
The result of this study will be useful to the people who are in-charge of integrating ICT into secondary schools (curriculum planners) so that they will know the right tools that will suit some schools and the right way about the integration process. The research findings will help the government officials and policy makers, in formulating effective planning and implement the process of ICT integration/utilization in secondary schools.
In addition, parents, students, administrators, curriculum planners, school authorities who will have access to this study, will know the appropriate steps to take or measures relating to poor integration/utilization ICT in secondary schools. This study attempts to explore the effects of teachers’ educational beliefs and ICT-related variables on teachers ICT use in the classroom. Specifically, the study is guided by the following research question
1.5 Research Questions
In the course of this study, it was important to raise the following questions:
- To what extent, does self concept relate with student attitude to integration and Utilization of ICT in secondary schools?
- To what extent does peer influence relate with student attitude to integration and utilization of ICT in secondary schools?
- How does social control relate with student attitude to integration and utilization of ICT in secondary schools?
- What determines the relationship between student motivation and student attitude to ICT integration and utilization?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no significance relationship between self concept and ICT utilization.
H01: There is a significance relationship between self concept and ICT utilization.
- Ho: There is no significance relationship between peer influence and ICT utilization.
Ho2: There is a significance relationship between peer influence and ICT utilization.
- Ho: There is no significance relationship between social control of the student and utilization of ICT in secondary schools.
Ho3: There is a significance relationship between social control of the student and utilization of ICT in secondary schools.
- Ho: There is no significance relationship between students’ motivation towards ICT utilization based on their educational background.
Ho4: There is a significance relationship between students’ motivation towards ICT utilization based on their educational background.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study is a study that is limited to only students of SS2 classes in two public secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A, Akwa Ibom State. Findings therefore apply potentially to everyone within this framework. Generally, this study is limited by its sample size and how they achieved academic success and their experiences.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
- The researcher experience difficulties during the period of administering of instrument in schools due to the fact that the students were writing examination at the time of administering the instrument, that made the researcher liaise with the vice principal to create a little time for the student to respond to the instrument thereby resulting in the usage of a small sample size of the population.
- One of the limitations of the study was non-availability of measuring instrument which prompted the researcher to develop and use a standard instrument named “Students Psycho-Social Variables Questionnaire (SPSVQ) and Students Attitude to ICT Integration and Utilization Questionnaire (SAIIUQ)”. This was instrument used in data collection and analysis.
1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms
Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
ICT is an extended term for information technology(IT) which stresses the role of unidentified communications and the integration of telecommunication(telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audio–visual systems, which enable users to access store, transmit and manipulate information
This is the use of ICT to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills. At the same time ICT Integration has been fueling contention among stakeholders and administrators of ICT in schools and other training environments.
In the context of this study utilization refers to the capacity to make use of the ICT resources available fully in the information Society.
A predisposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person or situation. It influences an individual choice of action and response to challenges, incentive and rewards called stimuli.
ICT in Education:
This refers to the process of using ICT in the teaching and learning process maybe in classroom or any place. We can also say that it is the process of using gadgets in education process.
From an educational viewpoint, motivation is a multifaceted constructs that encompasses a variety of meaningful connotations pertaining to learning and educational development. Pintrich et al (1990) identified three main categories of concepts relevant to motivation in the educational setting viz. Personal beliefs, purpose for engagement and affective reactions in relation to the activity.
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