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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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            This study investigated on pupil’s perception of the influence of Parental Involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome in Abeokuta Metropolis’. Descriptive research of survey method was used for the study. Simple random Sampling techniques was used to select 10 schools and 300 respondents. Data was collected   using a structured questionnaire, validated by lecturers in the department of Primary Education studies and tested for reliability using split –half   method and the reliability coefficient of 0.82 was established. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, Percentage, mean and standard Deviation. Result indicated that Pupils’ perception of parental involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome is positive. Based on this, the study recommended that the school personnel, members of the families and communities should work on collaboration to provide quality assistance to aid pupils’ learning and development.


Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certificate                                                                                                                   ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv-v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table content                                                                                                              vii-viii


  1. Background of the Study                                                                                1-3      
    1. State of the Problem                                                                                       3-4
    1. Research Questions                                                                                        4-5
    1. Purpose of the Study                                                                                      5         
    1. Significance of the Study                                                                               5
    1. Scope and Limitation of the Study                                                                5
    1. Definition of Terms                                                                                        5-6


2.0       Introduction                                                                                                    7

2.1       Theoretical Background of the Study                                                            8-10    

2.2       Parental Involvement in Children’s Education                                              10-12  

2.3       Diversityin Parental  Involvement                                                                 12-14

2.4       Benefits of Parental Involvement in Children Education                              14-15  

2.5       Importance of Basic Science in Primary Education                                      15-18

2.6       Factors that Encourage or Inhibit Parents’ Involvement  in

Children Education                                                                                        18-22  

2.7       Academic Performance and Parental Involvement in Children Education         22

2.8       The Influence of Home Background on the Academic Performance of Pupils 22-24

2.9       Parents’ Gender and Parental Involvement in Children Education                   24-28

2.10     Type of School and Parental Involvement in Children Education                28-29

2.11     Importance of Parental Involvement in the Children’s Homework               29-30

2.12     Empirical Literature Review                                                                          30-33

2.13     Conceptual Framework  of  the Study                                                           33-34

2.14     Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed                                                                        34-35


3.0       Introduction                                                                                                    36

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             36

3.2       Population of the Study                                                                                  36

3.3       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                 36-37

3.4       Research Instruments                                                                                     37

3.5       Validity  Instruments                                                                                     38       

3.6       Reliability of the Instruments                                                                                    38

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                       38

3.8       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               38


4.1       Demographic Information of Participants                                                     39-42

4.2       Answers to the Research Questions                                                               42-39

4.3       Summary of Findings                                                                                     49-50

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                                                                   50-51


5.1       Summary of Findings                                                                                     52

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      52-53

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          53-54

            References                                                                                                      55-60

            Appendix                                                                                                        61-63



1.1       Background to the Study

Education is essential for the development of society. The more educated the people of a society are, the more civilized and well-disciplined the society might be. Mainly, family has responsibility to socialize children for making them productive members of society. The more the parents involve in the process of imparting education to their children, the more the children might excel in their academic career and to become the productive and responsible members of society.  It has been assumed that academic achievement of pupils may not only depend on the quality of schools and the teachers, rather the extent of parental involvement has vital role to play in academic achievement of their kids.Learning begins at home through interaction with one’s family. (Bryan, 2005).

Parental involvement in a pupil’s education along with environmental and economic factors may affect childdevelopment in areas such as cognition, language, and social skills. Numerous studies in this area have demonstrated the importance of family interaction and involvement in the years prior to entering school(Hill, 2001; Wynn, 2002). Research findings have also shown that a continued effort of parental involvement throughout the child’s education can improve academic achievement (Driessen, Smit&Sleegers,2005; Fan, 2001; Hong & Ho, 2005). Academic failure has been linked with risk behaviours and negative outcomes such as; substance abuse, delinquency, and emotional and behavioural problems (Annunziata, Houge,Faw, &Liddle, 2006).

Pupils’ academic achievement and educational attainment have been studied withindifferent theoretical explanations. Many of them have a focus on parents’ education,occupation or home background (like; family income, language of the home,
activities of the family and work methods), while other studies looked at it from the
teachers’ variables (such as teacher’s age, experience, education, gender, etc), school
variables (such as environment, structures, buildings, location, etc), pupils’ variables
(such as attitude, self-concept, self-esteem, study habit, interest etc) and parents’
support (such as achievement motivation of wards, parental attitudes towards
education, the aspiration of parents etc). (Liddle, 2006).

Owen and Philip (2013) show that parents have more contribution to pupil’s performance, but the participation level defers among rural area, boarding school and urban. Also, Table man (2004) pointed out that when parents are enabled to become effective partners in their child’s education, performance in schools where children are failing improves dramatically. This shows the importance of parental involvement in changing academic performance in pupils. Harrison and Hara (2010) also concluded in a research done in North Carolina that family and community involvement can have a powerful and positive impact on pupil outcomes. Those studies agreed to some extent that parents ’participation has a positive impact on learners.

The parent’s financial status and education do have an important influence on the
personality of the child. Educated parents can interpret the educational demands and
their children’s aptitude. They can assist their children in their early education which
bears on their proficiency in their relative field of cognition. Belonging to strong
financial background, parents can provide the latest technologies and facilities in a
best possible way to enhance educational capability of their children. Parental education and socioeconomic factors are of critical importance in effecting pupils’ educational achievements as well. They are like backbone in providing financial and mental confidence to pupils. The explicit differences can be noted between pupils who belong to different families with different financial status and different parental educational level. Key (2007) argued that education is a primary need in this era of globalization so is a very important tool in the day to day life. Education not only gives insight, it also grooms the personality, inculcates moral values, add knowledge and gives skill. Education is necessary owing to the atmosphere of competition. In every field highly qualified people are needed. As (Azhar et al, 2013) cited in Battle and Lewis states that; “In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is seen as a first step for every human activity. It plays a critical part in the evolution of human capital and is related to anindividual’s well-being and opportunities for more honest living.”

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Teachers and parents as the two key stakeholders in the overall development of children need to be aware of the importance of parental involvement in children’s learning. Therefore, it requires a two-way communication to create support for children’s learning in and out of school. Teachers need to have awareness of the knowledge children bring to the class from home and other settings and the support they get out of school. However, in Nigeria context, communication on parental role in learning and teachers’ involvement of parent is very limited. Given the low literacy rate (39 % for men and 14 % for women) in Nigeria, parents who themselves are not highly educated or are non-literate need clear and sustained communication and guidance on how to support their children’s education. Teachers also need to know what parents do and can do, in their capacity and within their intellectual and material resources to support their children’s learning. Schools, particularly teachers, may not have clear strategies for communicating with parents on a regular basis and may underestimate their role in motivating and reinforcing students’ learning. Views, perceptions and attitudes of teachers may impact how effectively parents can get and stay involved in their children’s education.

1.3       Research Questions

i.          What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through provision of materials and emotional supports on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

ii.         What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through home discussion on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

iii.        What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through home supervision on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

iv.        What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through school communication on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

v.         What is pupils’ perception of influence of parental involvement through school participation on their motivation to learn and school outcome?

1.4       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the pupil’s perception of the influence of parental involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome in Abeokuta Metropolis.

1.5       Significance of the Study

The study is important, especially to parents because the findings will shed more
light on the need for parents to be more involved in children’s learning.

1.6       Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focused on pupil’s perception of the influence of parental involvement on their motivation to learn and school outcome. The study delimited itself to some selected 10 primary schools in Abeokuta both to public and private primary schools, involving
pupils. The study employed quantitative approach. In this respect, the study findings
and conclusions are delimited to the subject area. The result and conclusion are
limited to situation in Abeokuta Metropolis.

1.7       Definition of Terms

Parental Involvement: Parental involvement can be defined in different ways. In this study, parental involvement includes parents’ at-home interest, support and engagement such as communication about the expectations parents have from their children, support with the studies and homework, providing advice and encouragement and communicating with the teachers and with the children about their school work. Parents’ involvement encompasses a range of actions and beliefs concerning sending a child to school and supporting the child’s out-of-school learning through advocating on behalf of the child, communicating with the school staff and maintaining a presence in the school.

Pupils’ Perceptions:  Pupils Perceptions is a simple tool that help pupils to understand possible barriers to learning for individual pupils and particular groups, and the resultant inhibiting of progress.