RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS’ CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS IN UYO LGA
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- Background to the Study
Teachers of all types often try to keep their classrooms free from disruption. For this to be successful, they need to manage the class and correct the learners’ behavior in such a way that encourages, motivates and retains positive behaviour. Though, the terms classroom “discipline” and “management” may be considered synonymous, discipline is associated with the notion of bringing children to the right path (Skiba and Peterson, 2003).
According to Walter (2006), classroom management differs from one teacher to another because of the teacher’s personality, teaching methods, preparedness, and number of students in the classroom. Umoren (2010), opines that, the concept of classroom management is broader than the notion of student control and discipline, it includes all the things teachers must do in the classroom to foster students’ academic involvement and cooperation in classroom activities to create conducive learning environment. Morse (2012), relates that classroom management involves curtailing learner’s disruptive behaviors such as fighting and noise making, etc.
Teacher’s classroom management skills can be referred to as skills which can be acquired like any other profession; it is also a skill that must be practised to achieve proficiency. Classroom management requires specific skills such as planning, organizing as well as an attitude for teamwork. It requires a great deal of commitment, initiatives, teachers’ willingness to adjust, creative thinking and actions (Abel, 2011). Effective classroom management is much more than just administering corrective measures when a student misbehaves, it is about developing proactive ways to prevent problems from occurring in the first place while creating a positive learning environment (Kaushar, 2013).
In addition, fuller (2006) noted that although there are other moderating factors associated with students classroom behaviour and academic performance of students; teachers effective communication skills, teacher classroom discipline, teachers’ supervision skills, and teacher-student relationship skills are the key factors that determine the levels of academic performance of the students in school.
Teachers communication skills in the classroom is usually defined as the transmission of a message that involves the shared understanding between the context in which the communication takes place (Tsui, 2003). Communication takes place through channels. Within the teaching profession, communication skills are applied in the teachers’ classroom management, pedagogy and interaction with the class (Saunder and Mills. 2000). In addition, teaching speaking skills is important in students education (MCcarthy and Carter, 2001).
Instructional supervision skills according to Obot (2010) involves moving around the classroom to observe students closely, engaging the students in academic activities, asking questions and employing both verbal and non-verbal teaching methods to ensure that students are paying undivided attention and taking more from the then simple facts. It also involve the teacher moving around the class to inspect the writing materials of the students like notebooks, textbooks etc. to ensure that they are in line with what the teacher has been teaching in the class. Without good supervision skills, the performance of students especially in physics will be very poor.
Teachers-students relationship is another classroom management skill in which any good teacher should posses in the course of maintaining a good learning environment for the students. Kim Lee (2016) opines that, one of the most pure and deeply inspirational relationships is that of a devoted teacher and willing students. Almost everyone has a favourite and those we liked less. It totally depends on how the student-teacher relationship were developed, nurtured and given space to evolve. Teachers who support students in learning environment can positively impact their academic outcomes which are important for long term trajectory of academic performance (Baker, 2008).
Teachers’ classroom discipline is the ability of a teacher to help his students to submit themselves willingly to disciplinary influences in the classroom. It is the application of those influences which secure right conduct of the students in classroom without disturbances (Mentor, 2004). Mentor (2004) concluded that when students are not distracted by negative influences in the class, effective learning and achievement will take place. Essien (2007), the usefulness of class discipline include the following; to create love for the lesson, to enable the students to have free will and free movement in the class, to check offences which are bad among students in the class and to train the character of the students in the school and in the classroom to enhance effective learning achievement.
Another important skill a teacher should possess as far as classroom management is concern is the ability to reward the performance of students. According to Kelly (2013), reward is defined as materials and intangible values that can be employed to motivate students to learn. Reward has played a vital role in the academic performance of students in schools. According to (Enang, 2006), in a normal classroom setting, reward acts like verbal expressions of gratitude, encouragement of students like applauses after a question has been answered, will go a long way in motivating the students to improve academically.
Poorly manage classroom are characterized by disruptive behavior such as sleeping, late coming, calling of nicknames, noise making, miscopying of notes, eating, verbal or physical threat to fellow students or teacher (Ekere, 2006). These behaviours disorganize learning processes and hamper academic performance of students. Effiong (2007) emphasizes that, teachers can deals with these disruptive behaviours in the classroom and reduce them to the nearest minimum through effective classroom management skills for effective learning to take place.
Effective classroom management skills engender students’ academic performance. The provision of functional education to the students has been a major concerned to parents, educationists and and the society at large
Once teachers are able to effectively eradicate these disruptive behaviours in the classroom, there would be increased academic attentiveness and engagement which would pave way for better academic performance.
Academic performance refers to what the students have learnt or what skills they have learned. it is usually measured through assessments like standardized tests, performance assessments and portfolio assessments (Santrock, 2006). In this context, it is the result of examination results of SS2 students in Physics. Classroom management is a vital component of ensuring students reaches their full academic potential. When teachers can effectively control the direction and behaviour of a classroom, students are likely to achieve improved result (Charles and Senter, 2008).
It is on the basis of the above, that the research work proposes to examine the teachers’ classroom management skills and how they tend to relate to the academic performance in physics among SS2 students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, students’ low academic performance in Physics has been alarming. Its prevalence has attracted the concern of teachers, parents, school counselors and many researchers. This failure is partly blamed on students study habits and largely on lack of effective classroom management on the part of teachers. Especially in the area of lack of teachers’ communication skills, supervision skills, teachers-students relationship skills, assertive discipline skills, and punishment-rewards skills. According to State Secondary Education Board (SSEB), out of 1,943 students that sat for the Senior Secondary School Mock Examination in Physics, about 927 passed which is less than the total number of students that participated in the examination in Uyo Local Government Area.
Issues as effective classroom management have been extensively discussed at educational seminars and workshops, with efforts aimed at bringing lasting solution to the problem of students’ poor academic performance encountered in secondary schools examination in Physics.
This ugly occurrence has necessitated the use of some methods of teaching. For instance, some classroom teachers become tired of using verbal instruction in attempts to establish effective classroom management, but this method alone does not produce desired results. A couple of other teachers use corporal punishment to instill fear and discipline among students yet there are prevalence of disruptive behaviours in the classroom. A lot of other teachers waste time and energy in intensive classroom supervision so that the classroom climate could be conducive for lessons. But the low performance in Physics remained unchanged. It is against this backdrop, that the researcher poised to examine Teachers’ classroom management skills and their relationship with students’ academic performance in Physics among Senior Secondary School Two (SSS2) in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between teachers’ classroom management skills and academic performance in Physics among Senior Secondary Students in Uyo LGA.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Examine the relationship between teachers’ communication skills and academic performance of students in Physics.
- Determine the relationship between teacher’s classroom supervision skills and the academic performance of students in physics.
- Ascertain the relationship between the teachers-students relationship and academic performance of students in physics.
- Examine the relationship between teachers’ assertive discipline skills and academic performance of students in physics.
- Examine the relationship between teachers’ reward skills and academic performance of students in physics.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of the study would be useful to the ministry of Education and State Secondary Education Board as they will offer useful guide post to seminar topics and planning on training and retraining of Physics teachers. The findings would be significant to the teachers as the study will expose them to the knowledge and impacts of their inadequacies to the educational outcomes.
The findings would also be useful to the students and researchers as the study would offer recent empirical data on the study area as reference material. It would offer as well to them the insight to replicate the study at the same level of education but different scope and sample size or at the various senatorial districts or beyond Akwa Ibom State
- DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study did not in any way seek to determine the relationship between teachers’ classroom management in Private Secondary Schools in Uyo, rather it is restricted to SS2 students in physics in Public Secondary Schools in Uyo. Also by implication, public schools in other Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State were excluded from the study.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the relationship between teachers’ communication skills and students’ the academic performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers’ classroom supervision skills and students’ the academic performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers-students relationship and students’ the academic performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers’ assertive discipline skills and students’ academic performance?
- What is the relationship between teachers’ reward skills and students’ academic performance?
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ communication skills and students’ academic performance
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ classroom supervision skills and students’ academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers-students relationship and students’ academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ assertive discipline skills and students’ academic performance.
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ reward skills and students’ academic performance.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: How well or badly a student does in academics in terms of grades or scores.
TEACHERS’ CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT SKILLS: This refers to the variety of skills and techniques that a teacher uses to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive and academically productive during a class activity.
TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION SKILLS: This can be said to be the ability of a teacher to convey information to the students effectively and efficiently. It’s either verbal or non verbal and written.
TEACHERS’ CLASSROOM SUPERVISION SKILLS: Refers to the ability of a teacher to watch students, or any activity they are engaged in, making certain that everything is done correctly and safely.
TEACHERS-STUDENTS RELATIONNSHIP: This can be said to be a kind of social bond which exist between the teacher and the students in the classroom.
TEACHERS’ DISCIPLINE SKILL: This can be defined as the ability of a teacher to implement system of rules, punishments and behavior strategies appropriate to the regulation of students and the maintenance of order in the classroom.
TEACHERS’ REWARD: Refers to the ability of the teacher to encourage the performance of the students either by giving out material gifts or verbal praises.
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