SCHOOL VARIABLES AND TEACHER’S UTILIZATION OF ICT IN TEACHING BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background of the Study
The 21st Century is characterized by advancement in science and Technology. For a developing country like Nigeria to realize accelerated developments, there’s need for qualitative science education in our schools (especially in senior secondary school).
Science is the bedrock on which modern day technological breakthrough is hinged. It is also an organized body of knowledge in form of concepts, laws, theories and generalizations. Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behavior of material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, recording and measurement. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight, based on this, Fape (2007) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embrace systematic method of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, leaning and application. Thus, science comprises the disciplines such as Physic, Chemistry, Mathematic and Biology.
One of the science subjects that senior secondary school student’s offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian Secondary School is Biology (FRN, 2004). It is a very important science subject and a major requirement for further learning of a number of science related professional courses like medical, agriculture, pharmacy etc. Today, Biology pervades literally every field of human endeavour and plays a fundamental rule in educational and technological advancement seen all over the world. The National Policy on Education (FME, 2004) recommends practical, exploratory and experimental methods of teaching and learning of science processes and principles. In this regard, Okebukola (2004) stated that the basic tools that science was in the learning of science processes are the instructional materials or resources or media.
Studies have shown that the use of instructional materials have improved academic achievement (George (2008) and Nwagbo (2006). Instructional materials are wide varieties of equipments and resources used for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self activity on the part of the student. They also help to facilitate the achievement of instructional objectives. Since education cannot take place without are form of communication or the other, instructional materials or media are used. Examples are printed materials, photography, audio recording, video disc, radio, films, television etc. (NTI, 2017).
Integrating technology into educational curricula with the interest of positively influencing teaching and learning has been in a state of evolution over the past 20 years (Dias & Atkinson, 2001). According to Drent & Meelissen (2007), technology should be used as a tool to support the educational objectives such as skills for searching and assessing information, cooperation, communication and problem solving which are important for the preparation of children for the knowledge society. However, the National Policy on Nigerian Education (2004, p4) asserted that its fourth edition was
necessitated by some policy innovations and changes, one of which was the introduction of information and communication technologies into the school system. There was paved way for the advancement of information and communication technology (ICT). Adeyemi (2008) views ICT as a tool needed for today’s global and competitive environment.
ICT means Information and Communication Technology. Millen Exchange on education technology (1999) defines ICT as computer based tools used by people to work with the information and communication processing needs of an organization. It encompasses the computer hardware and software, network and several other devices (Video, cameral, photography, audio etc) that converts information (text), images, sound, motion and so an into common digital form, other ICT facilities includes projective liquid crystal display (LCD), printers, digital versatile disk (DVD) among others (Siele, 2006). ICTs as a field of education has been there in the form of teaching aids or apparatus, as it was earlier called (Abimbade, 2002).
Globally, ICT has a index range of applications with enormous relevance to teaching and learning activities is secondary schools. ICT utilization is the presentation and distribution of instructional content through web environment (e-teaching) or systems offering an integrated range of tools (internet technologies, projectors, computer, CD-ROM amongst other) to support learning and communication (Yusuf, 2005). ICT in used for instructional service delivery because teaching learning activities take place in the classroom. Therefore, the quality of instructional service delivery entails the extent to which teachers carry out teaching learning processes in their classroom. The teaching of Biology without instructional materials may certainly resets in poor academic achievement. Folorunso (2004) has linked poor achievement trend in biology particularly to lack of instructional resources in schools due to poor funding of schools. This poor funding of schools has hindered principals from providing the teachers with adequate instructional resources/materials. Unfortunately, achievement of students in biology at the end of secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 1999). Despite the government’ substantial investment in ICT related teaching and learning resources, students performance in WAEC examination in science over the years has been poor dismal (WAEC 2004) therefore, is useful to find out how well their resources are being used and managed, especially for the benefit of the learner.
Teachers play an important role in the teaching/learning paradigm shift. They understand the potential role of technology in education and also act as agents who should effect the usage of technology in the classroom. In the early 1990’s, the international society for technology in education, ISTE established standards defining technology literally for teachers education. The ISTE standards recommended that all teachers should be prepared in basic computer/technology operation and concepts, personal and professional use of technology, application of technology in instruction. Also, teacher education institutions and programmes like National Teachers Institute most help teachers to understand how the new technologies can best be used in the context of the culture, needs and economic conditions of their country.
An examination of past researcher studies and reports on ICT utilization
in schools show that there are several factors that affect teacher utilization of ICT. These are school and teacher factors (Agbo, 2015). Research on the proper utilization of ICT in schools has also shown that these school and teacher factors are interrelated. These factors must be available to create changes in classroom teaching support from parents, community, principal and administrators, availability and accessibility of ICT facilities, adequate funding, provision of ICT facilities, teaches attitude towards ICT usage computer competency of the teacher etc.
It is agreed globally that proper use of ICT holds great promise, especially in the educational sector, ICT helps to transform learning environment to be a learners centered environment, it improves the quality of education (teaching and learning), it promotes learning anywhere and anytime. With the excitement of ICT, teaching has become interesting and students remember well.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning process of biology in Nigerian secondary schools is still at its crudest form. Both teachers and students are still relying on textbooks information and teachers class verbalization due to the general poor attitude towards innovation. Teachers believe that government has neglected education consequently; it is observed that many biology teachers are yet to fully utilize ICT for teaching and learning. Hence, the question is how do school variables affect the use of ICT in teaching biology and to what extent do teachers use ICT in teaching biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the school variables and teacher’s utilization of ICT in teaching biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study.
- Determines the extent of support for use of ICT in teaching biology by teachers in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- Examines the level of ICT competency of teachers teaching biology secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- Investigates the availability of ICT facilities used by teachers teaching biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would hopefully help the students know that utilization of ICT provides them with repertoire of resources to enhance their learning.
- Teachers improve on their ICT skills as well as quality of teaching and learning in secondary schools.
- The society at large to know that ICT are key tools that have become part of our everyday lives, whether in the hospitals, homes, industries, businesses etc.
- Serve as a source of data for intending researcher on this subject.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
- To what extent does the level of school support for use of ICT facilities relate with teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- To what extent does the level of ICT competency of teachers relate with the teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching of biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- To what extent does the availability of ICT facilities relate with teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
- To what extent are ICT facilities utilized by teachers teaching biology in secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant relationship between school support and teacher’s utilization of ICT facilities in teaching biology.
- There is no significant relationship between level of ICT competency and teacher’s utilization of ICT in teaching biology.
- There is no significant relationship between the availability of ICT facilities and teacher’s utilization of ICT in teaching biology.
- There is no significant relationship between the extent of ICT facilities utilized by teachers teaching biology.
1.7 Assumption of the Study
Despite the rapid growth in technology (ICT), most educational institutions tack consolidated and comprehensive currieular, not to talk of facilities for the utilization of ICT in teaching (Biology). Poor quality of instructional service delivery is traced to the manner teachers carry out teaching/learning processes in their classroom thus, breeds low interest in Biology and producing poor achievement in examination. The net impact of these inadequacies is that most secondary schools and teachers cannot utilize ICT in teaching biology.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
This study is limited to five secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. These are community secondary commercial school, Ikot Ebiere; Nung Oku Itina Community Secondary School, Ikot Mbong, Community Secondary Commercial School, Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Afaha Inang Secondary School, Awa, Community Secondary School, Ikwe.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
This study has been constrained by a number of factors such as lack of accurate and up-to-date data on the number of computer and accessibility to power supply. The limited time frame allocated to carry out this research has not allowed the researcher to move around with ease for collection of other valuable information needed for the research has not allowed the researcher to move around with ease for collection of other valuable information needed for the research.
1.10 Definitions of Terms
Information – Computer hardware, software and network and any
Communication – Communication device or application encompassing.
Technology – Radio, Television, Video, Camera, projector among
ICT Competency – ICT knowledge and skill possessed by an individual
Influence – Act of having power to affect something in a given way
Teaching – The number of years one has been teaching biology
Facilities – Instructional material/resources/media used to
Support – Encouragement given by parents, principles to aid the
adoption of technology (ICT)
Biology – One of the subject taught in Senior Secondary school
curriculum that is concerned with the study of life (living organism)