SECURITY MANAGEMENT SITUATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NORTH CENTRAL ZONE IN NIGERIA
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Most school environments no longer provide the security required for effective teaching and learning. Today, security issue has become a major challenge in our educational institutions. Consequently, this study set out to explore ways of improving security situations in the North Central Zone public secondary schools. The study was a descriptive survey study, involving 1,188 respondents, made up of 176 principals and
1012 teachers from 352 public secondary schools in North Central Zone. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study, namely: Check list on available devices for improving security situation in public secondary schools and a four point scale Questionnaire on improving Security Situation in Public Secondary Schools.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
The management of security is paramount to the effective management of schools and it is an issue that has attracted a great deal of attention and concern from learners, educators, parents, and the public at large. Management is viewed as the coordination of all the resources of an organization, through the process of planning, organizing, directing
and controlling in order to attain organizational goals (Ogunu, 2009). Management is a vital function of school administration. The school principal has to plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate staff and material resources to achieve the objectives of the school.
The Education Board with the school managers have multiplicity of functions to perform such as arrangement of students and grouping of activities into units to make for utilization of material resources in carrying out functions. Some of the functions are planning curriculum, organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment,
monitoring students’ progress, protecting the students and providing security for the school facilities and stakeholders. They must be concerned not only with the quality of instruction, but also with the maintenance of safety and security in the school. Michele, Water, Susan, and Atartins (2007) stated that the school principal works to make school
experience humanized so that the students could feel connected, valued and motivated to learn and achieve the school objectives. They further said that the principal has to endeavour to improve the school environment so that the teachers could feel confident, respected and safe. This proves a well-managed school with a good social climate. National integration covers all activities and arrangements put in place to ensure free movement, mixing and interaction of a people of a nation with other people of the same nation without any form of gender, racial, tribal or religious discrimination. Happenings in recent times in the nation have once again called for sober reflection by all particularly, in view of the dynamics of our federation. National security is in jeopardy. Insecurity comes in different coloration and magnitude among which include the spate of bombings in some parts of the country, election related crises, kidnapping, human trafficking, militancy, assassination, hunger, armed robbery, environmental degradation and other untoward acts now being experienced in the country. All these have thrown up the need for all and sundry to be more retrospective, introspective and proactive on issues of national security so as to arrest this negative drift currently impacting our national psyche. Some of these security issues have been with us for sometime now without fizzling out despite concerted efforts to the contrary. There is therefore the need to try the education option as a panacea for assuaging the drift thereby guaranteeing national security. Education has been defined as a process by which individuals are assisted formally through proper direction and guidance to develop their capacities for their own benefit and that of the society (Okeke, 2003). It is geared towards developing the individuals for them to live effectively and efficiently in the society and to contribute to its advancement and upliftment. Hence, through education the behaviour patterns of the citizens could be changed in the desired direction. In other words, with sound education people will start to understand and appreciate one another better and try to restore the dignity of man. Hence, we have to recognize the role education plays in equipping individuals with requisite knowledge and skills for survival and societal progress. Successive Nigerian governments have evolved different policies and programmes to promote education and develop the nation’s human resources, (Matawal, 2007). Often, these reforms in education fail to provide broad-based education in the development of the mind, in comprehending the environment and development of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies to co-exist with and contribute to the development of the society. It is meaningless to talk of development in the absence of national security. In other words, insecurity in a nation is a threat to development. There is therefore, a nexus between national security and development. In a state of insecurity, development is as elusive as a mirage. The management of security is paramount to the effective management of schools and it is an issue that has attracted a great deal of attention and concern from learners, educators, parents, and the public at large. Management is viewed as the coordination of all the resources of an organization, through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organizational goals (Ogunu, 2009). Management is a vital function of school administration. The school principal has to plan, organize, direct, control and evaluate staff and material resources to achieve the objectives of the school. The Education Board with the school managers have multiplicity of functions to perform such as arrangement of students and grouping of activities into units to make for utilization of material resources in carrying out functions. Some of the functions are planning curriculum, organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment, monitoring students’ progress, protecting the students and providing security for the school facilities and stakeholders. They must be concerned not only with the quality of instruction, but also with the maintenance of safety and security in the school. Michele, Water, Susan, and Atartins (2007) stated that the school principal works to make school experience humanized so that the students could feel connected, valued and motivated to learn and achieve the school objectives. They further said that the principal has to endeavour to improve the school environment so that the teachers could feel confident, respected and safe. This proves a well-managed school with a good social climate. A well-managed school begins with thorough advanced planning by the head of the school and the teachers, to ensure that the teachers have adequate knowledge of their subjects and those security needs of the students and staff are guaranteed. 1 2 School security management is the plan for the protection that is given to the stakeholders within the school, learners, educators and managers from crime and accidents, by means of well-drawn policies which should be well managed (Trump, 2010). The school is an organisation that needs to have planned safety rules and regulations to protect its components so that the culture of learning and teaching is enhanced. According to Stephen (2004), school security management refers to strategies and procedures required to co-ordinate the diverse activities of the institution in order to achieve safety. One of the important duties of the school manager is to ensure that safety programmes are implemented and that necessary steps are taken whenever situation arise which could be potentially dangerous (Bucher and Manning, 2005). School Management is supposed to manage school security as one of its priorities and also ensure that there is adequate security in the school environment. Managing school security is done by means of policies and programmes which will embrace all stakeholders. Security has been defined as the degree of protection against danger, damage, loss and crime (Dwyer and Osher, 2000).Also, Orpinas, Home and Staniszewsk (2003) defined security as a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat. Security is the precaution taken to safeguard an environment from impending danger or injury. It is a measure taken to prevent dangers and threats. These are the measures taken to make the school environment safe. A place where there is security is a place of safety, (Haughton and Metcalf, 2000). The evidence of a secured school is the existence and execution of security plans which are well drawn policies of protection that should be given to the stakeholders within the school, be it learners, educators and managers. Security in school can be explained as a situation where students and educators are not exposed to any form of danger or risk of physical or moral aggression, accident theft or detoriation. According to Campbell (2007), school security are the strategies and procedures required to coordinate the diverse activities of the 3 school, protect and manage school violence, reduce security risks and ensure that the school environment is safe for teaching and learning. Security is supposed to be a major factor in the design and sitting of any new school building. Although many of the schools were not designed with security in mind, their security can still be put in practice. The implication of this is that security concerns of schools are to be considered before citing schools to ensure that school buildings are properly erected, and properly organised in terms of spacing in order to reduce risks to lives of students. The security of the learners is supposed to be compared with the security of educators because they also tend to be victimized by those learners and the people who intend to attack the entire school. School security is the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile act or influences (Aryu, 2000). This is to say that security measures are to be reinforced to keep the school stakeholders and the environment free from harm and danger. Creating and maintaining secure environment needs clear understanding and management by all stakeholders. They school know what the school has to do to enhance the security and the steps to take in the face of emergency. According to Stephen (2004), it is essential that scholars and members of staff feel safe at school and it is for this reason that schools should have security plans in place which would be revised regularly. School with clear norms and expectations, fair procedures and the involvement of members of the community (educators, parents, learners, principals, administrators and community service) are less likely to experience high level of security threats (Asmal and Tshwete, 2000). School remains one of the safest environments for children. However, in far too many schools, a lack of respect for the authority of teachers and other in disciplinary acts threatens the employees as well as the rights of other students and in turn affects quality education. Increasingly, students are victimised in school by fellow scholars, educators as 4 well as insurgency. In Chibok, a town close to the boundary between Bornu and Adamawa States of Nigeria, Ndahi on the 16th of April 2014 reported how the gunmen invaded and abducted more than 200 senior secondary school girls from the school compound. Such security threats need to be defined, acknowledged and prevented. If something drastic is not done, the existing security threats such as terrorism, bombing, armed insurgency robbery and lack of property physical security facilities like fences, good security personnel could spiral out of control, leaving large number of students fearful, injured and deceased. There are reasons for concern in the study of improving security situations in North central zone of Nigeria because of the escalating cases of security threats undermining the security of the school communities thereby creating a climate of insecurity and fears which impairs the purpose of the school. Certain cases exist to illustrate the need for implementing security measures so as to keep schools secured. There are problems of terrorism, bombing and Boko-Haram massacres in Nigeria. In Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, Akintokumbo (2011) reported that there have been four terrorist attacks in Abuja since 2010; the first was bombing of students at the stadium on Independence Day celebration while the second and the third were in police and army barracks. In all these bombings, schools were burnt and many students killed. In Yobe state of Nigeria, Ndahi 2014 reports “ several students and staff of Federal Government College in Bumi Yadi of Yobe state were feared death while others were abducted by gunmen suspected to be members of the Boko-Haram” The gunmen also set ablaze many structures in the school and dead bodies of some students were burnt beyond recognition. This indicates that there is a great challenge facing public secondary schools in North central states. A well-managed school begins with thorough advanced planning by the head of the school and the teachers, to ensure that the teachers have adequate knowledge of their subjects and those security needs of the students and staff are guaranteed.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Crime, violence, disorder, bombings and gunmen invasion are the major problems facing public secondary schools in North Central Zone of Nigeria. These problems not only endanger students and teachers but they also prevent teachers from concentrating on teaching and students from concentrating on learning. This change in educational climate has created an imperative need for schools to identify tools, strategies and model programmes that enhance the safety and success of all children and professionals who serve them. This is because when people are legally required to attend school, school personnel have the corresponding duty to provide children with a safe, secure and peaceful environment in which learning can occur. More than ever before, public secondary schools accommodate children from dysfunctional homes, children living in poverty. Unfortunately, resources to adequately serve the total range of needs presented by these students are becoming increasingly limited. Adequate parental supervision and control of these students have weakened, and many students have little or no respect for all forms of authority. Consequently, schools are confronted with problems of students possessing and fighting with weapons such as the clash between Government Secondary School Makurdi and Army Day College Makurdi in Benue State, where students injured themselves with weapons. School properties worth millions of naira were damaged. Many students go to school with guns and some others sold themselves to the Boko Haram Sect and are being used to bomb down schools as in the case of Federal Government College Yobe State, where a child was made bomb down the school. Some security preventive measures necessary to secure the school environment have been employed in many schools such as the introduction of identity cards for students, school staff and visitors. Some employ security guards, locking all doors and 14 windows but despite these efforts, the problem of school security threats persist on increase which indicates that it is necessary to take continuous measures for daily security improvement to cope with invaders or any other harmful incidence beseeching the public secondary schools. The problem of the study posed as a question is, what are the ways of improving security management situations in public secondary schools in North Central Zone
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study was to investigate ways of improving the security situations in public secondary schools in North Central Zone of Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:
- ascertain the security devices available for effective security management in public secondary schools in North Central Zone.
- determine available emergency response plans for combating security threats in public secondary schools in North Central Zone.
- find out ways of improving the effectiveness of staff security in public secondary schools in North Central Zone.
- determine the strategies for improving security of students in public secondary schools in North Central Zone.
- find out measures to be adopted in managing security of school plants in public secondary schools North Central Zone
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: Principals and teachers does not significantly differ in their mean ratings on the ways security of teachers can be improved.
H1: Principals and teachers differ significantly in their mean ratings on the ways security of teachers can be improved.
H0: The difference in the mean ratings of principals and teachers do not significantly differ on the threat prevention strategies needed in the schools.
H2: The difference in the mean ratings of principals and teachers significantly differ on the threat prevention strategies needed in the schools.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study has both theoretical and practical significance. The study is anchored on the School Climate Theory. This theory posits that safe school climate has its significant influences on educational outcomes. Positive school climate encourages inter personal relationships and optimal learning opportunities for all students, and reduces disruptive 15 behaviours which are threats to every member of the school community. The theory holds that all aspects of school climate which include trust, respect, mutual obligation and concern for other’s welfare, can have profound effects on educators and learners’ interpersonal relationships as well as learners’ academic achievement, and overall safety and security in the school compound. This study will help to validate the school climate theory, otherwise it will question the theory .Within this context, it is hoped that the findings of this which will be focused on measures for improving security situations in schools, will help to create good school climate for encouraging effective learning. Practically, the study will be useful to school governing boards, school staff, students, state and federal governments and to researchers. Governing boards have the broadest role in ensuring school safety. Boards create the philosophical foundation that guides decisions and direct future actions. Through their governance roles, boards adopt policies, programmes and curricula that can contribute to safe environment for all students and staff. With the help of this study, the board members will rise to their roles to ensure that the link between security and opportunity for academic success is publicized to the community. This is because the study will expose security improvement measures needed for effective academic environment. The study will also be useful to the school staff.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study dealt on improving security situations in public secondary schools in North central zone. Measures for security management situations and security devices available for effective improving of security operation in public secondary schools. It also focused on the ways to improve security management in the school, security prevention strategy and measures for improving school plant facilities. In the cause of the study, there were factors that militate against the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Finance: Limited Access to the required finance was a major constrain to the scope of the study.
- OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm from external forces. Beneficiaries of security may be persons and social groups, objects and institutions, ecosystems, and any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by its environment
Security management is the identification of an organization’s assets, followed by the development, documentation, and implementation of policies and procedures for protecting these assets
Public secondary schools
State schools are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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