SEXUALITY AND CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG ADOLESCENT
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1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on sexuality and contraceptive use among adolescent. The total population for the study is 200 students of selected secondary school in Enugu south local government of Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up sss 3 students, sss 2 students, sss1 students and jss 3 students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
Sexuality and contraceptives is an increasing topic in this 21st century around the world due to the adverse effects of unsafe sexual behaviors, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among the adolescents as well as adults. Teaching adolescents about birth control may not be consistent with promoting abstinence. However, most adolescents are sexually active and have high tendency to engage in early sexual activities despite having knowledge of abstinence. According to the American Pediatric Association, nine in ten adolescents have had intercourse by the time they turn twenty and, more than 15 million girls between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth every year worldwide, and an additional 5 million have abortions. In Central America, 18% of all births are to women in their teens and in Africa this figure is 23% according to world health organization. Parents-adolescent communication also plays an important role in attitudes and behaviors of adolescents concerning contraceptives. (Pediatrics 1999.) Our project is done under MIMO (Moving in moving on) which is 3 year research and development project with EU funding from the central Baltic program. The aim of the project is to improve professional team work and art based methods for social and youth work by carrying out various workshops for the target groups of 13-17 year olds. The project is targeted on youths who are at risk of isolation from society. (MIMO 2013.) However, the aim of this project is to share adolescents experiences about sexuality and contraceptives from a cultural perspective. And task is to use digital story telling method to share adolescent experiences of sexuality and contraception from cultural perspectives. A large number of factors influence sexual activities during adolescence period. The most common factor is teenagers’ ability to cope with the body changes in shape and size especially women. Teenagers are exposed to the risk of contracting STDs, including HIV/Aids and teenage girls are even more at risk, with early, unwanted and unplanned pregnancies.(WHO2013.)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Premarital sexual activity is common in many regions of the world. A variety of studies in Nigeria suggest that significant proportions of adolescents are sexually active by their teens. Despite high sexual activity, not many young people are taking precautions that would enable them prevent the consequences of their sexual activity. This poses serious health risks for young girls involved, by exposing them to sexually Vf transmitted diseases (STDs), unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, economic hardships and school dropouts (Njau and Redney 1995, Furgusion). Not all adolescents’ sexual activity has been of equal interest to demographers. Researchers have devoted the bulk of their attention to premarital sex, based on the assumption that sexual activity is increasing among unmarried adolescents. Thus there is a dearth of information about the sexual and reproductive knowledge of soon to-be married partners, the transition to marriage, and the experience of young married couples and their negotiations regarding the intervals between marriage and sexual intercourse and between marriage and first birth. On this background the researcher wants to investigate on sexuality and conceptive use among adolescent
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among adolescents
- To ascertain the association between the frequency of sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among female adolescents
- To ascertain the relationship between the type of sexual partners and contraceptive use among female adolescents
- To determine the frequency of sexual activity among adolescent in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among adolescents.
H1: there is relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and contraceptive use among adolescents.
H02: there is no relationship between the type of sexual partners and contraceptive use among adolescents
H2: there is relationship between the type of sexual partners and contraceptive use among adolescents
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will give clear insight on sexuality and contraceptive use among adolescent. The study will be beneficial to lecturers, students, youths and the general public. Clearly, there is need for more serious look into the decisions adolescents’ make so as to engage in certain behaviour and to identify factors that may predispose adolescents to early coitus and non-use of contraception. This study thus has the potential of providing some insightful information on adolescent sexuality and contraceptive use given that it will investigate specific segments of adolescents. It is hoped that the study findings can be used in designing appropriate interventions for adolescents and that they will be of meaningful use to policy makers, educators, donor agencies and the community at large. The study will also serve as reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers sexuality and contraceptive use among adolescent. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SEXUALITY: Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors.
CONTRACEPTIVE: contraceptives are devices that attempt to prevent pregnancy by physically preventing sperm from entering the uterus. They include male condoms, female condoms, cervical caps, diaphragms, and contraceptive sponges with spermicide. Globally, condoms are the most common method of birth control.
ADOLESCENT: Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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