Social Media and Election Outcome An Analysis Of Nigerian 2019 General Election
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The title of the research is social media and election outcome an analysis of Nigerian 2019 general election (the case study of UNGOGO local government area, the research contain five (5) chapters, chapter one deals with the introduction of the topic, chapter two deals with literature review, chapter three is the research methodology of the study chapter four deals with data analysis, result and discussion and lastly is chapter five which is conclusion recommendation, The result from the findings of this study showed that, though Social media have a positive impact on election outcome of 2019 general elections, it was also revealed that social media can be used as a tool in giving information during the next general elections and other local elections that will occur in 2023. It was also revealed that Social media is one of the few latest strategies that allow you to connect directly with your audience. You know who is interested in your political ambitions because they choose to follow your social media account.
SOCIAL MEDIA AND ELECTION OUTCOME AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIAN 2019 GENERAL ELECTION 0
TITLE PAGE i
SOCIAL MEDIA AND ELECTION OUTCOME AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIAN 2019 GENERAL ELECTION i
TABLE OF CONTENT vii
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Background to the Study: 1
1.2 Statement Of The Problem 2
1.3 Objectives Of The Study 4
1.4 Research Question: 5
1.5 Significance Of The Study 5
1.6 Scope Of Study and Limitation 6
1.7 Definition of terms 6
1.8 ORGANISATION OF CHAPTERS 7
CHAPTER TWO 8
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 8
2.1 Conceptual Review 8
2.1.2 The Preparation towards the 2019 General Election 9
2.1.3 The Process and Conduct of the 2019 General Election in Nigeria 12
2.1.4 A Framework of Analysis: Game Theory 14
2.1.5 Violence and Political Thuggery 16
2.1.6 Access to Media 17
2.2 Role Of Social Media In Democracy 18
2.3 The Influence of Social Media on Democracy 19
2.4 Politicians and social media 22
2.4 Social Media Impact on elections 22
2.5 Election in Nigeria 25
2.6 The 2019 General Election: A Review The 2019 General 27
2.7 The Cases of Inconclusive Election in Some States: An Evaluation 28
2.8 Effects of Inconclusive Election on the Credibility of the 2019 General Election. 32
CHAPTER THREE 35
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Introduction: 35
3.2 Research Design 35
3.3 Study Population 36
3.7 Method of Data Collection 36
3.4 Sample Size 37
3.5 Sample Technique 38
3.6 Instrument(s) of Data Collection 38
CHAPTER FOUR 39
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 39
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions 41
4.3 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 45
CHAPTER FIVE 47
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 47
5.1 SUMMARY: 47
5.2 CONCLUSION 47
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 48
The 2019 General Election is another milestone and a watershed in the efforts of Nigeria towards democratization. It has been the six consecutive times that General Elections are successfully conducted in the Fourth Republic which has been unprecedented in the history of the country. Since the turn of the 21st century, the transformation in opportunities presented by the rapid change from the “old” media of print journalism and terrestrial television channels, to the “new” swift advances in information and communication technology and multiple social media platforms, has had a dramatic impact on democracy today. Today, the advancement in information technologies has seen the media become an increasingly reflective force to reckon with in recent times because of its ability to reinforce the various interests and political views in the state rather than shaping the role that it had previously allowed through traditional media channels which was to preserve their own positions and promote their own interests. It is notable that elections in Nigeria for over fifty (50) years remain a warlike affair and the phenomenon seems to be continuous despite the long experience of democratic practice in the current Republic. The research used both primary and secondary sources of data analysis in Ungogo local government of Kano state. The primary sources consist of participant observation, data from the electoral body; the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and reports from observers and civil societies that directly participated in the exercise.(Sule, 2018).
Clearly, the 2019 elections were followed with great expectations because of the improvements recorded in the previous general elections in 2015. The 2015 elections generated positive perception of the electoral process for a number of reasons. For the first time in Nigeria’s electoral history, a winner emerged from the opposition party, and there was a successful alternation of power. The 2015 elections saw remarkable improvements in the incorporation of technology into the electoral process, which contributed to strengthening the integrity of the elections. Since 1999, after democratic transition, there was also a decline in election petitions that had become a common phenomenon after the announcement of election results. It was, therefore, not a surprise that international and local observers gave some positive assessments of the 2015 elections (Onapajo, 2015).
In all thrift to analysis on social media and election outcome of 2019 general election. Social media networks over the years have proven to be a great source of information and communication on a large scale leading to a vast amount of diverse datasets. This capability makes it possible to analyse large amounts of data virtually on any topic from online users. Organisations, media houses, politicians, artists, entertainers, among others, utilise social media to engage with a broader audience. Social media platforms play an instrumental role in election campaigns and other political debates, as reported in past studies. Despite the growing number of studies concerning the impact of social media in elections, little attention has been paid to Africa’s largest democracy (Nigeria); this motivates this study. For the study, the researcher collected a large number of tweets based on the Twitter handles of the political parties and presidential candidates. The researcher also measured the online activities of political parties and candidates and analyzed users’ opinions to understand their sentiments.
Incidentally, in Nigeria, the everyday use of social media by politicians, and the manner in which the user-citizen interacts with the social network sites/pages of politicians has received rather less attention. Essentially, politicians expect the communication relationship to be positive and of benefit to them, thus, political gladiators of all shades of opinions, ideologies, intents and goals use the media with the belief that political communication through them might exert pressure or have an influence on people’s perception and behaviours. This conception of the effect of social media is akin to the historical and cultural dominance of print and electronic media and the perceived hypodermic needle effect of mass media messages.
However, going by public comments and election observers’ reports, the 2019 general elections did not meet the record of the 2015 elections. Nigerians were dissatisfied with the management of the elections by the Electoral Management Body (EMB), the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). INEC battled with logistical problems and administrative deficiencies that impacted negatively on the quality of the elections. The logistical challenges caused a sudden postponement of the presidential election six hours before its commencement on 16 February 2019. The postponement significantly dampened public expectations about the prospects of the electoral process.
Social media spread disinformation due to their characteristic features of anonymity and ease of producing, accessing, forwarding, and replicating media contents. Although studies have analyzed the influence of disinformation on voter choices, little is known about the false information that went viral on social media during the 2019 Nigerian presidential elections and its influence on voting decisions. Accordingly, the study identified social media disinformation about Muhammadu Buhari (All Progressives Congress) and Atiku Abubakar (Peoples Democratic Party), and it’s influence on voting decisions. Content analysis of Twitter, Facebook and YouTube posts revealed 10 viral pieces of disinformation about the contestants. Although the messages looked authentic because of their attribution, they were tagged false by independent fact checkers and disclaimers.
It was found out that twitter was mostly used by the parties and their candidates to put across campaign promises and canvas vote from the public, the civil society used twitter for engagements and discussing the available candidates thereby leading to availability of much information about them, creating awareness for the wide array of social media users.
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