SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATION OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT IN KANO STATE
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This study sought to examine socio-economic implication of youth unemployment in Kano State, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. Frequency counts, simple percentage and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. Findings from the research showed that there are socio-economic implications of youth unemployment in Kano municipal, Kano State. From the response got from the questionnaires revealed that youth unemployment leads to poverty, low productivity, losses in foreign direct investment, low revenue generation, rural urban migration, illicit activities which increases insecurity, anti-social activities such as armed robbery, prostitution, political thuggery, violence, kidnapping, restiveness and other social vices evident among the unemployed youths and this constitutes danger to the stability, growth and development of the state. The research concludes that, addressing the problems of youth unemployment, must involve all stakeholders. Suggestions from the analysis therefore, are that effective policy measures such as re- prioritization or revitalization of agricultural sector, reformation of educational system, provision of enabling environment and building of industries be pursued vigorously which will drastically reduce unemployment and poverty as well as eradicate the menace of youth unemployment in Kano State and Nigeria at large.
1.1 Background of the Study
The challenge of unemployment has remained intractable even in the develop economies of the world.Globally, the world is experiencing mass unemployment of qualified andable-bodied youths and these have generated much concern for bothgovernmental and non-governmental organizations, public and private sectors ofthe economy. The global economic recession of the 1980’s has caused rapiddeterioration in Nigeria’s economic industrial output. In the 60’s and 70’s youth unemployment was not pronounced like today because the government thenwere proactively involved in providing jobs for graduates churning out fromvarious higher institutions.The issue of youths’ unemployment in Nigeria has become a national concern as the unemployed youths tend tobe more anxious, depressed and unhappy with their attendant sleeplessness than those with jobs (Samuel, Ofem and Samuel, 2006).
Unemployment has been categorized as one of the serious impediments to social progress and development of the Nations world over. Unemployment is a global trend, but it occurs most in developing countries of the world, with attendant social, economic, political and psychological consequences (Ayinde, 2008; Emeka, 2011; Chigunta, 2002). Thus, massive youth unemployment in any country is an indication of far complex problems. According to International Labor Organization (ILO), the proportions of world unemployment are steadily increasing and that the number of those without jobs remained at all time high of more than 195 million, or 6.3 percent in 2007.Over the years, youth unemployment has taken a centre stage in mostsocials and economic discourse in Nigeria because the youths remain thegreatest asset and the life wire of any nation. Youth employment in any nation isuniversally acknowledged as the basic source of survival and economicdevelopment (Ajaji, 2008).
The ensuring political instability and inconsistencies in the socio-economic and educational policies of successive governments, however, emerged as major factors that led to the manifestation of high level of joblessness in Nigeria. Nigeria is economically under-productive, relative to its potential for significant development (Omotosho, 2009). Again, Nigeria’s capacity to employ its own population seems to diminish progressively despite the country’s quantifiable fiscal ability resulting from the production and sale of oil. The level of unemployment in Nigeria appears to grow geometrically every year, in contrast to its regional neighbours most of who have far less resources. Anameza, (2000), stated that Nigeria will have no prospect of measurable development or of improving the welfare of its people; unless it enhances the chances of employment for its graduates.
Unemployment affects a person psychologically and can have many short term and long term effects. Some psychological effects are lack of self-esteem and confidence, stress, lack of enthusiasm, and suicidal tendencies. Unemployment can have negative effects on the mental ability of the youth, parents and the society as a whole (Ibrahim, 2006). Sleeplessness, anxiety and depression are constant companions for many out- of- work youths especially men. It also causes school drop-out increase among the affected youths and it can lead to divorce. Youths suffering from poverty have a higher rate of juvenile delinquency and crime. Their proximity to drug and alcohol abuse is equally high. A lot of them who neither have education (formal or informal) not rare working, due to lack of fund or lack of adequate skills, get involved in various criminal activities, like stealing, pick- pocketing, raping, robbery, kidnapping, ritual killing etc (UNOWA, 2005). They usually live in bad neighborhoods where positive role models are either non-existent or out of reach.
Youth unemployment in Nigeria is soaring high despite laudableprogrammes provided by federal, states and local governments to curb thegrowing concern of joblessness among the teeming population of the country.Several governments both past and present have tried to solve this issue but dayto day it increases. President Ibrahim Babangida’s regime from (1984-1993) was the first administration to be confronted with mass unemployment which led tointroduction of National Directorate of Employment (NDE) to tackle the scourge of unemployment but to no avail. President Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration
(1999-2007) came up with the national Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP)but could not solve this menace. President UmaruYaradua’s administration (2007-2010) with the view ofsolving this problem initiated the seven (7) points agenda, yet no meaningfulachievement was recorded and President Goodluck Jonathan (2011-2015)administration launched Youth Enterprise with New Innovations (YOUWIN) and AlhajiBolajiAbdulahji the minister of youth also organized a youth forum to helpyouths realize their goals in life, still there is high prevalence of youthunemployment in the Nigerian Sectors (Ikemefula, 2012). The present regime of President Mohamed Buhari since inception has introduced the NPower youth empowerment programme in a bid to tackle unemployment still to no avail. This study therefore examines the socio-economic implication of unemployment in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The menace of unemployment has increasingly been recognized as one of the socio-economic problems currently facing many developing countries includingNigeria. The unemployment problem in Nigeria remains persistent and even growing by the day with a labour force approximately 3 million persons (mostly youths) annually moving into job market (Adelodun, 2006). Statistics of Nigerian unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated, rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing incomes but also of some highly educated populations, as well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria’s unemployed and consequently poor are well educated even by European and American standards. Youth employment is a crucial issue in Nigeria because the youth constitute a major part of the labour force and they have innovative ideas, which among other factors are important in the development process of the country.The negative consequences include psychological problems of frustration, depression, hostility and gradual drift of some visible unemployed youths into all manner of criminal behaviour (Okafor, 2011).Unemployment in Nigeria is indeed a pathetic situation that calls for urgent attention, to address these socio-economic effects accompanied by it. The study intends to address the above challenges by cross examining the socio-economic implication of unemployment in Kano State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this research is to examine the socio-economic implication of unemployment in Kano State. The specific objectives are;
- To examine the effects of youth unemployment on the kidnappingsituation in Kano municipal, Kano State.
- To examine the effects of youth unemployment and armed robberysituation in Kano municipal, Kano State.
- To find out the extent youth unemployment has affected the socio-economic wellbeing of the individuals of Kano municipal, Kano State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following constitutes the research questions for this study:
- Are there any relationship between youth unemploymentand kidnapping situation in Kano municipal, Kano State?
- Are there any relationship between youth unemployment andarmed robbery situation inKano municipal, Kano State?
- Are there socio-economic implications of youth unemployment in Kano municipal, Kano State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Following the objectives of the study as outlined in section 1.3 and theresearch questions as outlined in 1.4, the research hypotheses are as follows:
H0:There is no significant relationship between youth unemploymentand kidnapping situation in Kano municipal, Kano State.
H1: There is significant relationship between youth unemployment andkidnapping situation in Kano municipal, Kano State.
H0:There is no significant relationship between youth unemployment andarmed robbery situation in Kano municipal, Kano State.
H2:There is significant relationship between youth unemployment andarmed robbery situation in Kano municipal, Kano State.
H0: There are no socio-economic implications of youth unemployment in Kano municipal, Kano State.
H3: There are socio-economic implications of youth unemployment in Kano municipal, Kano State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is often imperative to question what would be the significance of any endeavor, be it academic or otherwise. This is also applicable in this study. The researcher anticipates that at the completion of this study, will give a clear insight on the knowledge about the socio-economic implications of unemployment on the Nigerian youths.This study is significant as it will take an in-depth analysis into the root causes of the reoccurring cases of kidnapping and banditryin KanoState, the studywill also outline thecauses of criminal activities and their implications on the region. Therefore, the findings will help government to proffer solutions as regard unemployment and its effects on youths in Nigeria as a whole.The study will provide answers to various arms of governments in Nigeria about the failure of empowerment programmes in the eradication of unemployment in the society, especially among the educated youths.The study will serve as a guide and important tool in the fight against high level of unemployment.It will also serve as a tool for further research work for other researchers who will endeavor to carry out research in the same field in future.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study revolves around the entire federation; since it has to deal with youth unemployment as a persisting global challenge, the dynamic scope has a national outlook and it will thus be universal to embark on the study. However, it becomes very necessary for the researcher to narrow it down to the capital city in Kano State which is Kano Municipal with a view of finding a lasting solution to the challenges of youth unemployment.
A research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constraints, this constraints seems to pose some limitations to the study.
Firstly,the time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.
Secondly, the finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
Thirdly, some respondents were unwilling to respond to the questionnaire and interview questions.
Notwithstanding these foregoing limitations, the researcher still had the opportunity to distribute and collect the questionnaires from the respondents as well as gain access to relevant information from people that were interviewed. The researcher believes that the study is credible, valid, meaningful and practical.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Socio-economic: In the context of this study, refers to the social and economicrealities of social problems in our society and the extend it affects the society. Itis concerned with the study of the society.
Implication:This simply refers to the causes, effects, result, or outcome of a thing.
Youth:Official policy defines a youth as a young person aged 18-40 years whois passing through mental and physical developmental processes in preparationto face life challenges, a period between childhood, teenager and adulthood.
Unemployment:when a great many people are unable to find work,unemployment results. It can also be defined as the inability to obtain a jobwhen one is willing and able to work. Also, it occurs when the supply of labouroutstrips the demand for labour. It also means lack of sufficient employment inthe formal and informal sector.
Youth Unemployment: can be defined as the conglomeration of young personswith diverse background, willing and able to work but cannot find any. It is thesituation when young persons aged 18-35 years who are actively looking forwork but fail to find any one during a long period of time.
Kidnapping: means the unlawful seizing or carrying away of a person by forceor fraud inorder to obtain ransom for his or her release. It is the taking away ortransportation of person to hidden and isolated area usually false imprisonmentagainst the person’s will either to kill or to receive money as ransom.
Armed Robbery: According to the Nigerian constitution and Police report, it canbe defined as the use of guns or other dangerous weapons to inflict intimidationand fear into another person to gain access to someone’s house, shop, office, orsocial institution. It is the use of force and arms to steal from someone.
Poverty:means the state where someone cannot satisfy the basic needs of lifesuch as food, shelter, clothing, money and other basic necessities of life. It is thestate of being poor, inferior or insufficient in amount. Here, it means thecondition where one lacks wealth, money or job as a result of no opportunity orcertain factors of life.
Political Thuggery :This can be defined as sponsored thugs used by politicians during political rallies, campaigns and election to win their opponents and acquire a position or office. It also means using violent, brutal behaviour ,intimidate and all manners of weapons to attack, or kill an innocent opponent for reason of political differences.