STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN JALINGO LGA OF TARABA STATE
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This study was conceived out of the fact that many primary schools especially in Anambra State lack the concept and apprehension of the role of supervision and good management for effective academic progress. Many teachers and pupils are the victims of laudable government policies yet lacking implementation. Supervision is not a new name as far as education is concerned. It is still surprise to see many primary schools lacking adequate care and supervision both internally and externally. Internal and external supervision if well practiced will help to eradicate the cankerworms eating Nigerian
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
The Man’s capacity to learn, to organize, to communicate this leaning as knowledge, to other member of the species, and to act on the basis of leaning and knowledge constitute the subject matter of education [Golsin, 1965]. According to Penna , education is a Process by which an individual gets opportunity to develop his mental capacity in such a way as to arm him to play a specific role in a developing programme. Our society requires adequate human and materials resources to improve its social organization, preserve the culture, enhance economic development and reform the political structures. Education is often seen as a prerequisite for quality manpower development and creation of wealth, a sure path to success in life and service to humanity. Education is the conscious efforts to prepare students through monitoring, teaching and learning for their role in the future (Adedeji al 2008).
In this regard, education is severally conceived and inculcated by people of varying background, age, needs and aspiration for sustainable development. The potency of education is more evident in its globalization tends imbued with instrumental values of nurturing productive citizens, sustainable development and democracy. Education has been recognized as a process of impacting knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learners. This could take place in varying schools with the purpose of ensuring total development of the children.
According to Akinpelu (2004), education can be defined as the process of transforming cultural heritage and renewal from one generation to another. He stressed further that education is a process of renewal of experience that will probably occur in a deliberate and institutionalized from inorder to generate social sustainability. Thus, making education relevant is a matter of ensuring that it generates, informs and maintains the student vision of life including his/her professional activities, attitudes, beliefs and values.
Education being regarded as the act or process of impacting or gaining knowledge, judgment and a level of intellectual maturity. In a general sense, is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, values, ideas, norms, morals and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to another through the process of teaching, training or research Adeyinka A.A (2009), John (Quoted by) as Adewuyi and Ogunwuyi (2002) define education as the culture which each generation purposely give to those who are to be its successors in order to qualify them for at least keeping up and if possible for raising the level of improvement which have been attained.
Taiwo (1980) define education as the training of the young with a view of their growing up and developing into adults who can fend for themselves, live in a society and be of service to that society. Hence, Education is conceived as the process of acquiring skills, knowledge, understanding attitudes and values in problem solving.
Redden in Okemakinde (2014) gives a more explicit definition of education. According to him, Education id deliberate and systematic influence extended by the mature person upon the immature through instruction, discipline and harmonious development of physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual powers of the human beings according to their essential hierarchy by and for the individual and social uses which is directed towards the union of the educated with the creator at the final end. Speaking in the same vein, Thompson says that education is “the influence of the environment upon the individual to produce a permanent change in his habits of behavior, of thought and of his attitude”. Environment has various aspects, physical, social and cultural. Education should therefore facilitate the task of adaptation of the child to his environment. Thus, Educational system however, affects the way people of a particular country carryout their educational programmes.
Moreover, Education is the pivot on which the development of any nation revolves. It is very vital to the peace of social, political and economic development of any nation. For this development to be achieved, it is important that educational institutions are properly administered, most especially at this period when a lot of complexities have been introduced into the educational system. The rationale is that every educational administrator and supervisor have accurate knowledge, information, skills and tools that are needed for effective management and supervision of student’s academic performance.
Human organization whether large or small, primitive or modern, educational or non-educational, engages in some activities or operation which leads to the achievement of their set goals and objectives. The emergency of the modern world has been significantly impacting, productive, profitable and worthwhile in the conceptualization of evaluating the price and worth of the education. Thus, educational activities cannot take place in vacuum, rather, in a well-structured formal settings or environment called school.
School being an integral and indispensable element of actualizing the set of educational goals and objectives is the birth place of citizens ideal. It is more important that all the stakeholder in the academic circle be it teachers, the students, the principals, the administrators and lot more should collaborate and work in order to have an outstanding result. Despite all the process involved in the teaching-learning process such as sequential planning’s of the teaching process, organizing the classroom to suit the desired educational purpose, proper and adequate classroom management, teachers intellectual and good oratory skills through evaluation of the teaching activities and lot more. The students’ academic attainment or success is not guaranteed if proper, timely and through supervision is not done in the teaching-learning process especially in teaching accounting subjects in the secondary schools. Ultimately, this is where the exploit of the teaching-learning process lies in yielding the intended result it is vehemently believed that the defect and setback upsurge in the academic community especially accounting circle in the secondary schools comes as a result of laxity in the area of school supervision. The task of school supervision has become increasingly complex within the past decades which call for urgent needs of the school supervision or supervisory teams to make use of relevant behavioral theories and techniques to be able to manage the modern complex educational institutions successfully.
It also sets value on the human factor in development which makes man capable of shaping his history. Malue (1968) had strongly argued that a country will never be developed unless education is developed because it is through better education that maximum use of can be made of human resources.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Primary school education in Awka North is faced with myriads of problem, ranging from poor organizational structure to lack of staff continuity, unqualified staff, inadequate educational method and lack of constant supervision and management of schools. Public primary schools in Awka North have suffered a lot of these problem and the resultant effect is total break down of law and order in these schools which affects teacher – pupils effectiveness.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to provide information on the need for management of primary schools in Awka North, as well as strategies necessary for effective supervision and management of these schools.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is that it will enlighten educators on the strategies they will use for effective supervision and management of primary school ii Awka North and in their Local Governments and states round Nigeria.
As a result of this, the following people would benefit from the study viz:
- a) The teachers
- b) The head teacher
- c) The Local Government Education officers
- d) The state Government Education Officers
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study has its focus in schools within Awka North Local Government Area only and is limited to exposing the strategies necessary for effective supervision and management of primary schools
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant relationship between class visitations by Principals and students’ academic performance in Secondary School.
H1: There is a significant relationship between class visitations by Principals and students’ academic performance in Secondary School.
HO: Regular instructional supervision has no significant relationship with student’s academic performance in Secondary School.
H2: Regular instructional supervision has a significant relationship with student’s academic performance in Secondary School.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM
School: A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers.
Supervision: Supervision is the act or function of overseeing something or somebody. A person who performs supervision is a “supervisor”, but does not always have the formal title of supervisor.
Academic performance: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Secondary school: A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place..
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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