SURVIVAL AND GROWTH IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATION
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This study is on survival and growth in public organization. Organizational survival has been argued to be a primary goal or objective every organization should have. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of succession planning consisting of six variables (talent retention, turnover rate, career development, supervisor’ support, organizational conflicts and nepotism) and to explain the relationship among these variables regarding survival of organizations. The sample consists of private and public enterprises in Nigeria. The results indicate that Talent retention, organizational conflict and nepotism positive and significantly correlated with organizational survival. On the other hand variables such as Turnover Rate, Career Development and Supervisor’ Supervision) are insignificantly correlated with organizational survival.
1.1 Background of the study
There is a purpose in every organization, which includes making a product and/or rendering some services at a price. According to Oxford Learners Dictionary (2007), an organization can be said to be a group of people who form a business, club etc. together in order to achieve a particular aim. It can also be defined as a business or administrative concern united and constructed for a particular aim. When we discuss organization, we have various classes among which are service organization and social organization etc. All these organizations have in mind the aim of continuing if not for eternity, a given period of time. (Unamka & Ewurum, 1995 1, 2, 3) For an organization to carry on its business there must be some factors put in place for the smooth running of the organization management, man-power, materials, money and machines. These need to be well coordinated in order for the success of the organization to be achieved. They are used by a group of persons known as management; neither can management exist without organization the two are inseparable twin. (Unamka &Ewurum, 1995:65) Good management weaves together the various parts of organization so that all factors function as a unit. Management refers to the group of executives or officials of a company who directs efforts towards common objectives by using available resources (Unamka & Ewurum, 1995:66) management can also be said to be a process of planning, organization to have an integrated system that will aid the achievement of organization objectives (Musselman & Hughes, 1981). Effective management leads to purposeful, well coordinated, goal oriented and goal directed activities. As earlier social organizations have in mind “continuity” and “survival” as they are being run for an organization to survive and continue existing without going bankrupt, or said to be illiquid, i.e. being its inability to meet up with its responsibilities as and when due, it must ensure the safety of its assets, cash and also the accuracy and reliability of its records, it should ensure that it institutes a system of control, strong enough to ensure such. This system is what is known as internal control system. According to the Auditing practices committee (APC 1980), internal control system can be defined as the whole system of control, financial or otherwise, established by the management in order to carry on the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management’s policies, safeguard the assets and secure as far possible the Completeness and accuracy of the records. The individual components of an internal system are known as „controls “or „internal controls‟. Internal control, according to Wikipedia, is defined as a process affected by an organization, people and information technology (I.T) system designed to help the organization accomplish specific goals or objectives. It is a means by which organizations resources are directed, monitored and measured. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the organizations resources. At the organizational level, internal control objectives relates to the reliability of financial reporting, timely feedback on the achievements of goals, compliance with laws and regulations and the prevention and detection of fraud. At the specific transaction level, internal control refers to the actions taken to achieve a specific objective such as the procedure for payment of money for services rendered Most organizations, of course, desire growth in other to prosper, not just to survive. Organizational growth however, means different things to different organizations. Indeed, there are many parameters a company can select to measure its growth. The most meaningful yardstick is one that shows progress with respect to the organizations stated goals (Crosby 1990). Other financial data are often utilized as “bottom-line” indications of growth In order to survive, organizations need to ensure that their revenue exceeds their cost, in this way they will be profitable. To ensure growth and survival, the internal controls established at each level of the organizations hierarchy should be fully understood and implemented. These internal control systems are not established without objectives, these objectives range from insuring that all monetary transaction conducted by the organization are in line with the company’s activities, to compliances with government regulation, efficiency in the completion of tasks and safety and security of employees and customers. It is against this background that this study seeks to look at the place, importance and role of the internal system in the survival and growth of a public organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
When we refer to internal control system, we talk of a system which will enable an organization achieve its objectives, we talk of a system which is very important to the existence of an organization, we talk of a system which will forestall the perpetration of acts that can act as a clog in the wheel to the success of an organization. This system is an all round system, that is to say, it encompasses both financial and non-financial control in realizing the goals and objectives of running the organization in an orderly manner, safeguarding the assets of the organization and also ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the organization’s records. We might not really understand the impact of internal control system on an organization’s performance until probably, we run an organization void of internal control system. The non-institution of internal control system in an organization is detrimental to the continual growth and survival of that organization. Non institution of internal control system in an organization result in improper keeping of records which could lead to the late preparation of accounts, doctoring of books of accounts, misappropriation of funds which are meant to be used for planning, decision making etc. illegal transactions being transacted, pilferage, misuse of fixed assets etc. improper keeping of records can also lead to inability to ascertain the organization’s actual assets; goods in stock, which could breed pilfering.
Lack of proper record keeping, controlling of proceedings or actions in an organization could lead to concealing of errors and fraud that might crop-up to bring down an organization. The non-institution of internal control system could lead to inability of the organization to make proper decisions and plan ahead effectively. When an organization fails to plan, definitely it will forestall the growth of the organization; make the organization to start dwindling and struggling for survival, which will then bring the organization to an end.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is the survival and growth in public organization. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
- To ascertain whether the record keeping aid in proper running of the organization
- To ascertain whether the internal control of the organization can cause organizational failure
- To ascertain in what way the internal control of the organization affect the survival and growth of the organization
- To determine the relationship between internal control and efficient running of an organization
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: record keeping does not aid in proper running of an organization
H1: record keeping aid in proper running of an organization
H02: there is no significant relationship between internal control of the organization and efficient running of an organization
H2: there is a significant relationship between internal control of the organization and efficient running of an organization.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to public organizations. It will help government owned establishments to assess their internal control measures and make amends where necessary. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers survival and growth in public organization. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SURVIVAL: Is the act or fact of living or continuing longer than another person or things: the continuation of life or existence problems of survival in arctic conditions.
GROWTH: Growth refers to a positive change in size, and/or maturation, often over a period of time. Growth can occur as a stage of maturation or a process toward fullness or fulfillment. It can also perpetuate endlessly, for example, as detailed by some theories of the ultimate fate of the universe.
ORGANIZATION: An organization that is established as a means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure.
PUBLIC: In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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