SYNTHESIS CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM P-NITROANILINE AND P-HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE AND IT’S NICKEL (II) COMPLEX
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Schiff base and their metal complexes has been a subject of research for longer period of time and till date various researchers are aggressively focusing on synthesis of various Schiff base with different metal complexes and try to identify their unique properties. The condensation of P-hydroxybenzaldehyde and P-nitroaniline in ethanol medium in presence of Acetic acid gives isolate schiff’s bases which appeared as a yellow crystal having sharp melting point and insoluble in water and some organic solvents. Metal complexes of simple unsymmetrical Schiff-base ligands derived from P-hydroxybenzaldehyde and P-nitroaniline was synthesized which also appeared as a greenish ellow powder with sharp melting and point and insoluble in water and some organic solvents. The Schiff base and its nickel complex derivatives Synthesized was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, melting point, conductivity and antimicrobial activity was determined using pseudomonas and Bacilussubtitiles. Generally, the metal complexes have higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands.
CHAPTER ONE. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.1 Background of the study. 1
1.2 Aim and Objectives. 3
1.2.1 Aim.. 3
1.2.2 Objectives. 3
1.3 Statement of the Problem.. 4
1.4 Significance of the study. 5
Chapter 2. 8
2.0 Literature Review.. 8
2.1 Schiff bases. 8
2.3 Transition Metal 9
2.3 Ligand. 10
2.4 Transition Metal Complexes. 10
2.5 P-Nitroaniline. 11
2.6 P-Hydroxybenzaldehyde. 11
2.7 P-nitroaniline and 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde schiff base ligand and complex. 12
2.8 Antimicrobial Acivity. 13
2.9 Biological Importance of Schiff Bases. 15
2.10 Spectral Features. 16
2.10.1 Infrared spectral 16
2.10.2 UV – Visible spectroscopy. 17
CHAPTER THREE. 18
3.1 Materials and Methods. 18
3.2 Chemicals/Reagents. 18
3.3 Method. 19
3.3.1 Preparation of Schiff base. 19
3.3.2Preparation of the Metal Complex. 20
3.4 Solubility test 20
3.5 Conductivity Measurement 20
3.6 Melting Point 20
3.7 Characterization. 20
3.6 Antimicrobial Studies. 21
3.6.1 Determination of inhibitory activity of the ligand and complex (sensitivity test) 21
3.6.2 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 21
3.6.3 Determination of Minimum Bacteriocidal Concentration (MBC) 22
CHAPTER FOUR.. 23
4.0 RESULTS. 23
4.1 Physical characteristics and analytical data for the Schiff base ligand and nickel (II) complex: 23
4.2 solubility test for the ligand and the nickel (II) complex. 23
4.3 IR Spectroscopy. 24
4.4 Electronic Spectral of the complex. 24
4.5 ANTIMICROIAL ACTIVITY.. 24
4.5.1 Determination of inhibition activity of the ligand and metal complex (Sensitivity Test) 25
4.3.2 Determination of minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) 25
4.5 DISCUSSION.. Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHAPTER 5. 26
5.0 SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 26
5.1 Summary. Error! Bookmark not defined.
5.2 Conclusion. 27
5.3 Recommendation. 27
5.4 REFERENCES. 28
Schiff bases are azomethine (-C=N-) groups in chemical molecules. They are made by combining a primary amine and an aldehyde or ketone (Shrivastava&Shrivastava, 2016). Since the German chemist Hugo Schiff employed amines to synthesize various “metallo-imines” in 1864, a plethora of versions of the condensation products of amines and aldehydes or ketones, such as RCH=NR’ where R and R’ are alkyl and/or aryl substituents, have gained popularity. Schiff bases, anils, imines, and azomethines are other names for them (Mangamambaet al., 2014).
Fig.1 general reaction for the formation of Schiff base.
Because of their easy formation and strong metal binding ability, Schiff bases have been used for the synthesis of metal complexes. They are generally bi-, tri-, or tetra-dentate ligands capable of forming very stable complexes with transition metals (Arulmuruganet al., 2010).
Schiff base reactions are useful in organic synthesis for forming carbon-nitrogen bonds. Their corresponding metal complexes have grown considerably, including a wide range of organometallic compounds as well as other elements of bio-inorganic chemistry (Shaet al., 2017).
Schiff bases are essential chemicals with diverse biological and industrial applications, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects (Zemedeet al., 2015).
Researchers have continued to be interested in the chemistry of nickel complexes with Schiff base ligands comprising oxygen and nitrogen as donor atoms. These ligands have been widely investigated due to their broad potential applications in catalysis, electrochemistry, and biological systems, and are known to coordinate to nickel atoms in different ways under different reaction conditions (Zemedeet al., 2015).
Because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the need for viable alternatives, the creation of new chemicals with antimicrobial capabilities has received a lot of interest in recent years. Because of their various chemical structures and coordination skills with metal ions, Schiff bases, a class of organic chemicals, have shown promising antibacterial characteristics.
Researchers are particularly interested in the Schiff bases generated from 4-Hydroxy-Benzaldehyde and 4-Nitroaniline due to their potential medicinal applications. These compounds’ structural variety and simplicity of synthesis open up a wide range of opportunities for creating new bioactive molecules (Benson et al., 2015).
The starting ingredients for the production of Schiff bases are generally 4-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde and 4-Nitroaniline.The phenolic hydroxyl group in 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde makes it a favorable substrate for the production of Schiff bases, on the other hand, is a primary aromatic amine that may easily generate the required Schiff base through condensation with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde.
The coordination of the ligand to a central metal ion is required for the synthesis of Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes. The ligand’s chemical and physical properties alter as a result of this coordination, including increased biological activity. In addition, the metal ion serves as a site for coordination with additional ligands, resulting in the creation of coordination complexes.
This project aimed to synthesize and analyze the Schiff base produced from P-HydroxyBenzaldehyde and P-Nitroaniline, as well as its nickel (II) complex.
The precise goals are as follows:
- To synthesize a Schiff base from P-HydroxyBenzaldehyde and P-Nitroaniline
- To synthesize Nickel (II) complex of the synthesized ligand.
- To characterizethe synthesizedSchiff base and complex using FT-IR spectroscopic techniques, solubility test, conductivity, melting point and U.V visible spectroscopy.
- To test the antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds against various bacteria.
The study “Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Schiff Base Derived from P-HydroxyBenzaldehyde with P-Nitroaniline and its Nickel (II) Complex” addresses the need to investigate and assess the antimicrobial potential of the synthesized Schiff base and its Nickel (II) complex. The research aimed to address the following main issues:
- Antibiotic Resistance: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming more common, posing a substantial hazard to public health. Traditional antimicrobial medicines are becoming less effective, stressing the critical need to investigate novel antimicrobial molecules.
- Lack of Effective Antimicrobials: The scarcity of effective antimicrobial agents against resistant microbes necessitates the quest for new substances with robust antimicrobial activity. Schiff bases have showed promise as antibacterial agents, and more research into their biological activity is needed.
- Lack of Comprehensive Characterization: To precisely identify the chemical structure and characteristics of the Schiff base and its Nickel(II) complex, synthesis and characterization of the Schiff base and its Nickel(II) complex are required. To comprehend the compounds’ potential and method of action, they must be well characterized.
- The Need for New Coordination Compounds: Researching the coordination behavior of Schiff bases with transition metal ions such as Nickel (II) is critical for expanding coordination chemistry knowledge and discovering new coordination compounds with different features.
- Information Deficiency on P-HydroxyBenzaldehyde and P-NitroanilineDerivatives: Despite their potential as starting materials for Schiff base synthesis, P-HydroxyBenzaldehyde and P-Nitroanilinederivatives may have scant literature on their characteristics and applications. This research intends to improve our understanding of these chemicals.
The work intends to contribute to the search for effective antimicrobial drugs, improve coordination chemistry understanding, give detailed characterization of the synthesized compounds, and encourage sustainable synthesis techniques by addressing these areas. Finally, the study hopes to shed light on the possible use of Schiff bases and their metal complexes as antibacterial agents in the face of antibiotic resistance.
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