SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF COPPER (II) AND COBALT (II) COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM A SCHIFF BASE OF THIOACETAMIDE AND VANILLIN
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The complexes of cobalt (II) and copper (II) with schiff base derived from thioacetamide and vanillin were synthesized. All compounds were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Physical properties such as: solubility and melting point were carried out. The cobalt (II) and copper (II) complexes were also subjected to antimicrobial screening. The comparison of the IR spectra of the Schiff base and the cobalt (II) and copper (II) complexes indicated that the Schiff base functions as a bidentate ligand, copper (II) and cobalt (II) coordinate with the ligand through nitrogen of azomethine group (C=N) and Sulphur. Both the two complexes and the Schiff base were found to be soluble in ethanol and insoluble in chloromethane and pet ether. The antimicrobial activity of the copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes were found to be effective against all the tested fungi which are Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. However, copper (II) complex was found to be completely resistant to the tested bacteria which are Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus while cobalt complex was found to be effective.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.1 SCOPE OF RESEARCH.. 2
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES. 2
1.3 JUSTIFICATION.. 3
CHAPTER TWO.. 4
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW.. 4
2.1 Vanillin. 6
2.2 Thioacetamide. 7
2.3 Schiff Bases 8
2.4 Importance Of Schiff Bases 9
2.5 Transition Metal Chemistry. 10
2.6 Ligand. 10
2.7.0 Metal Complexes 11
2.7.1 Preparation of complexes 11
2.7.2 Conventional or wet chemical method. 12
2.7.3 Microwave Assisted Method. 12
2.8.0 FTIR ANALYSIS. 13
2.8.1 Identification and properties of metal ligands 14
2.9 Biological Activities Of Schiff Bases 15
2.9.1 Antimicrobial Activities 15
2.9.2 Antifungal Activity. 16
2.9.3 Anticancer Activities 16
2.9.4 Anti-inflammatory activities 17
2.10 Melting Point Determination. 17
CHAPTER 3. 18
3.0 EXPERIMENTALS. 18
3.1 Preparation of Schiff Base Ligand. 19
3.2 Preparation of Co (II) and Cu (II) Complexes 20
3.3 Solubility Test 21
3.4 Melting Point Analysis 21
3.5 Antimicrobial Studies 21
3.6 Test Organisms 21
3.8 Preliminary Screening. 22
3.8.1 Determination of Inhibitory activity (sensitivity test) of the copper(II) and cobalt(II) complexes using agar well diffusion method. 22
3.8.2 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 23
3.8.3 Determination of Minimum Bacteriocida Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) 24
3.9 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY) 24
CHAPTER 4. 25
4.0 Results 25
4.1 Physical properties of the ligand and complexes 25
4.2 Percentage Yield. 26
4.3 Solubility of ligand, Cu (II) and Co (II) complexes 27
4.4 FTIR analysis of the schiff base ligand and complexes 28
4.5 Results for antibacterial activity of Cu (II) and Co (II) complexes showing diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) at varying concentration (mg/ml). 30
4.6 Result For Determination Of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C) And Minimum Bacteriocidal Concentration (M.B.C) Of The Cu (II) And Co (II) Complexes (mg/ml). 31
4.7 Results for antifungi activity of Cu (II) and Co (II) complexes showing diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) at varying concentration. 32
4.8 Result for Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (M.F.C) Of the Cu (II) and Co (II) Complexes (mg/ml). 33
CHAPTER FIVE. 34
5.0 Discussion and Conclusion. 34
5.1 Discussion. 34
5.2 Conclusion. 35
Schiff bases are compounds containing C-N group. They are often synthesized from amine and aldehydes of ketone. They have gained importance due to their applications in many pharmacological activities like antibacterial antifungal and antiviral activities etc. (Fugu et al., 2013).Schiff bases are one of the important compounds with wide range of biological activities and industrial applications (Zemede et al., 2015). Complexes of metal (II) ion containing Schiff bases possess remarkable properties as catalyst in various biological systems (Zoubi, 2013; Abu-dief and Mohammed, 2015; Maity, 2019) anti-bacterial and antifungal activities (Jameel et al., 2014), antiviral activities (Kajal et al., 2013) anti-inflammatory (Jesmin et al., 2014). They also possess wide application in analytical chemistry, agrochemical and pharmaceutical fields (Bitu et al., 2019) the advances in inorganic chemistry provides better opportunities to use the metal complexes as therapeutic agents. They contributed a lot in the development of metal-based drugs with promising pharmacological application and may offer unique therapeutic opportunities, for instance, the clinical application of chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, such as cisplatin (Rafique et al., 2010).
Fig.1: Reaction of schiff base
Inorganic elements play crucial role in biological and biological medical processes, and it is evident that many organic compounds used in medicine do not have a purely organic mode of action, some are activated or bio transformed by metal ions metabolism. Many drugs possess modified toxicological and pharmacological properties in the form of metal complex and Schiff bases are versatile C=N (Imine) containing compounds possessing broad spectrum of biological activity and incorporation of metals in form of complexes showed some degree of antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity. (R.R Gupta et al., 1998). Schiff bases have gained prominence as pharmacologically important substances. They have anticancer or anti-tuborculostatic activity (J. Sengupta., 1966). They are condensation products of ketones (or) aldehydes (aldehyde and ketones) with primary amines and were first reported by Hugo Schiff in 1864. (D. Worku et al., 2002) Aromatic aldehydes especially with an effective conjugation system, form stable Schiff bases, where as those aliphatic aldehydes are unstable and readily polymerize. (P. Paul et al., 2002) A Schiff base behaves as a Flexidentate ligand and commonly coordinates through the O atom of the de-pronated phenolic group and the N atom of azomethane group. (D. Worku et al., 2002) In Schiff base azomethane nitrogen and other donor atoms like oxygen play a vital role in coordination chemistry. Hence an attempt is made to study the interaction of reduced Schiff base with transition of metals of biological interest and to investigate the coordination chemistry of such interactions. In the present work we described the synthesis and characterization of reduced Schiff base and its metal complexes.(P. Gamet et al., 2006) Moreover antibacterial and analgesic activity of reduced Schiff base metal complexes is also evaluated and compared with the standards. (MFujita et al., 1995). Schiff base ligands are able to coordinate with different metals and stabilize them in various oxidation states since they show electronic and magnetic properties. (S. Annapoorani et al., 1962-1968). Also in organic chemistry. Acylation of Schiff bases by acid anhydrides, acid chlorides and acyl cyanides is initiated by attack at the nitrogen atom and leads to net addition of the acylation agent to the carbon-nitrogen double bond. Reactions of this type have been put to good use in natural product synthesis. (Okabe M et al., 1990)
The significance of this proposal is to form the schiff base complexes of Co (ii) and Cu (ii) nitrate in which the schiff base ligand to be use in the experiment will be derive from the condensation of thioacetamide and vanillin. And it was shown to have several benefits due to its wide applications such as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory agents.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to form schiff base ligand from thioacetamide and vanillin and complexes of Co (ii) and Cu (ii).
The objectives of the research work are as follows:
- To synthesize the Schiff base ligand from Thioacetamide and Vanillin.
- To synthesize the complexes of cobalt (II) and cupper (II) with the Schiff base of thioacetamide and vanillin.
- To calculate the percentage yield of the Schiff base ligand and it’s Cupper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes.
- To determine the solubility test and melting point of the Schiff base ligand and that of it’s metal complexes.
- To characterize the Schiff base ligand and its complexes by FTIR (i.e. to determine the functional groups present in the synthesized complex and the ligand).
- To subject the complexes to antimicrobial test.
Rapid spread of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus flavus,and Aspergillus fumigates among humans and animals is a very serious issues scientist kept finding solutions, Copper (II) ion was a very active agent against this diseases caused by microbes (Fasina et al.,2012). In view of these, coupling Copper (II) and Cobalt (II) is expected to produce a complex having biological activities.
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