SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SCHIFF BASE COMPLEX DERIVED FROM P-NITROANILINE AND BENZALDEHYDE AND IT COBALT (II) COMPLEX
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Schiff basederived from an equimolar amount of benzaldehyde and P-nitroaniline was synthesized by stirring. The Schiff base was subsequently reacted with cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate metal complex.The compounds were characterized using FTIR, UV-visible, melting point/decomposition and solubility test. The solubility test of the compounds showed that they are soluble in most organic solvents and the melting point of the Schiff base ligand was found to be 147.8 Degree Celsius and the decomposition temperature of the Cobalt (II) was found to be 158.8 Degree Celsius for the cobalt (II). Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) analysis of each Schiff base and its metal complexes were done to confirm the formation of metal complex. The antimicrobial studies of the synthesized ligands and theCobalt (II) metal complexes for the microorganisms test used for this analysis were pure cultures of bacteria and fungi was carried out on Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.The results indicated that the metal complexes were more active than the ligand but less active compared to standard drugs (ciprofloxacin and floconazole)
CHAPTER ONE.. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.1 Background of the study. 1
1.2 Uses of Schiff bases. 3
1.3 LIGAND.. 3
1.4 Transition Metal Complex. 3
1.5 Complex. 4
1.6 Aim of Research. 4
CHAPTER TWO.. 6
2.0 INTRODUDUCTION.. 6
2.1 COBALT AND ITS COMPLEXES. 6
2.2 SCHIFF BASE COMPLEXES OF SOME METALS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS. 8
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD.. 11
3.1 Materials. 11
3.1.1 Chemicals. 11
3.1.2 Instruments. 12
3.1.3 Apparatus. 12
3.2 MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY.. 13
3.2.1 Synthesis of Benzaldehyde and P-nitro aniline Schiff base a solution. 13
3.2.2. Synthesis of metal complex of Cobalt with Schiff base ligand a solution. 13
3.2.3. FT-IR Analysis. 14
3.2.4 Melting point Determination. 14
3.2.5 Antimicrobial Activity. 14
3.3 Test Microorganisms. 14
3.3.1 Culture Media. 14
3.3.2 Determination of Inhibitory Activity (Sensitivity Test) of the Synthesized Samples Using Agar Well Diffusion Method. 15
3.3.3 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) 15
3.3.4 Determination of Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) 16
CHAPTER FOUR.. 17
4.0 RESULTS. 17
4.1 Physical properties of ligand and its metal complexes. 17
Table 4.1: Physical properties of ligand and complex. 17
Table 4.1.2: Solubility Test 17
4.1.2: Result for solubility test and its metal complexes. 18
4.2. Showing infrared spectra of Schiff base ligand and its metal complex. 18
4.2 Antimicrobial activity of cobalt (II) complex and the ligand. 18
Table 4.2.1: Results for the inhibitory activity of the ligand and complex. 19
Table 4.2.2: Results for the minimum inhibitory concentration of the ligand and complex. 19
4.3. UV spectra measurement 20
CHAPTER FIVE.. 21
5.0 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 21
5.1 Discussion. 21
5.1 Conclusion. 21
5.2 Recommendation. 22
5.3 References. 22
Schiff bases are versatile organic compounds that are broadly used and synthesized by condensation reaction of different amino compound with aldehydes or ketones (More et al., 2019). Structurally, oxygen of the carbonyl functionality (=CO) in an aldehyde /ketone is replaced with nitrogen leading to the formation of azomethine (C=N) functionality (Khan et al., 2019). Transition metal complex derived from Schiff base ligand have been among the most widely studied coordination compounds in recent years (Rafat et al., 2013). Research has shown significant progress in the utilization of transition metal complex as drugs to treat several human diseases (Warra. 2011).
Medicinal inorganic chemistry can exploit the unique properties of metal ions for the design of new drugs (Warra, 2011). Schiff bases played a key role in the development of coordination chemistry as they readily form stable complexes with most transition metals (tailor et al, 2004). An augmentation of biological activity was reported implementation of transition metals into Schiff bases (Anu et al, 2013). Metal chelation greatly influences the antimicrobial activity of the organic ligands; leading to synthesis of various transition metal complexes (Shayganet al., 2018).Complexes derived from Schiff bases of salicylaldehyde and its substitution products. Delephine (1898) prepared complexes by reacting metal acetate, salicyladehyde and a primary amine in alcohol and demonstrated 2:1 stoichiometry (Holm et al., 1966).
Schiff bases are widely used for industrial purposes and also show a broad range of biological activities. These includes; antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, properties (da Silva et al., 2011).
Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopedia 2010, explained ligands as any atom or molecule attached to a central atom, mostly a metallic element, in a coordination or complex compound. The atoms and molecules used as ligands are those that are capable of donating lone pair of electrons in the electron-pair bond with the metal atom.
Ligands can be classified based on the number of lone-electron pairs the possess, Examples are; Monodentate ligands which have only lone pair to donate. Amongst it are, H2O, NH3, Cl–, CN–. Those with more than one-pair of donor sites are called polydentate ligands, amongst it are; ethylenediamine, 2, 2 bipyridine etc. (Harris, 2002).
Ligands attached to metal through a single atom are known as monodentate ligand and through two or more atom atoms are known as bidentate or polydentated ligand.
A transition metal complex is made up of central positioned transition metal atom or surrounded by other ion or neutral molecules known as ligands which include ammonia and organic compound as pyridine. Octahedral transition metal complex is common, but they also exist in tetrahedral forms. It may be anionic, cationic or even neutral.
Transition metals have incomplete d or f shell in neutral or cationic states. These transitions metal are classified into d-block metal which consist of 3d element from Sc to Cu. Transition metal exhibits different oxidation states and can interact with number of negatively charged molecules. This activity of transition metal has started the development of metal based drugs with promising pharmacological application and may offer unique therapeutic opportunities (Rafique et al, 2010).
Complexes with co-ordination number four and six are the most common. Co-ordination number and geometry are determined by a combination of metal ion size, ligand size and electronic configuration/ligand type. A transition metal complex is a specie consisting of a transition metal bonded to one or more ligand (Zumdahl, 2005). Transition metal complexes are important in catalysis, material synthesis, photochemistry, and biological systems.
Complex in chemistry is used to describe molecules formed when ligands and metal ions combine. A complex can therefore be defined as a central metal atom or ion surrounded by charged species or neutral molecules called ligands, which can be considered to be attached to central metal ion by co-ordinate (covalent) bonds (Zumdahl, 2005).
The aim of this research work is to synthesize a cobalt (II) complex derived from a Schiff base of benzaldehyde and p-nitroaniline adduct as a potential antimicrobial agent.
The objectives of this work are:
- To synthesize the Schiff base from benzaldehyde and p-nitroaniline
- To synthesize cobalt (II) complex with the Schiff base
- To characterized the complex and the Schiff base using infrared spectrophotometer
- To subject the complex and the Schiff base to antimicrobial screening against Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas
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