TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
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Vocational and Technical Education is the form of education that comprises of the training in skills necessary for gainful employment as well as acquisition of basic educational foundation in both sciences, applied sciences and humanity, all aimed at developing individuals with the right attitude to work and the competency necessary to compete favorably in a global society. This paper discussed the significance of Vocational and Technical Education in national development and productivity, highlighting its problems in Nigeria which among others include poor implementation of the TVE programmed which affect national growth and development. Suggestions raised include re-branding the Technical and Vocational Education programmed from the basic education level.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
1.1 Background of the study
Technical education is the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task, it then means that when one uses the knowledge gained elsewhere to solve a similar problems in another environment successfully then technology is in action or has taken place. in technical education, the teacher quantity is critical because of the very skills, that must be taught, the teacher becomes a general list if he can teach more than three skills at all levels. The technical teacher must have some ability for multiple skills and eventually for self employment.
Vocational education is designed to help the learners acquire and develop skills, knowledge and attributes for effective employment or progression in specific occupations. This demands the learners to be adequately informed, prepared and equipped for the task ahead. Nelson and Nies (1973) Okorie and Ezeji (1988) believed that the more informed young people are about the needed work, skills, the more they are able to maintain themselves in an occupation which best meets their individual aptitude and interest. Vocational technical education is the study of technology and related science and acquisition of practical skills and knowledge relating to occupations in various sections of the economic and social life (Abokede, 2000).
In designing process of technical education courses as a double major, there is a separation between technical education sources and education courses. Technical education uses the methods and techniques of education, courses in the teaching-learning of technical education. The aim of colleges of education is to expand knowledge and the supply of competent experts to assist the nation to accelerate its educational development.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The negative situation is due to the failure of our educational institution to inculcate vocational technical education on the young ones in the school as these students are still in their formative and most impressionable years and age when ideas are still very fluid and amendable to change. Any habit or attitude developed at this stage will go a long way in the later life of the child. The revolution of the role of good vocational and technical education in our country cannot be left out. For education to be meaningful; and beneficial, vocational and technical education should be introduced in schools particularly from primary school level as children at this age are highly susceptible to learning. It has been established that poor performance of reading gives low understanding and low understanding affect individual performance. There are some factors that may constitute problem in the rapid progress some of these are:
- Political instability in government policy making on science and technology process may slow down the role of technical education in the national development.
- Poor funding of technical education may slow down the rapid progress expected from College of education.
- Inappropriate use of methods and techniques on technical and vocational education by the lecturers in the delivery of instruction may slow the progress of skills acquisition by learner in colleges of education.
- Unconducive atmosphere and relaxation may slow down teaching learning process.
The problem identified above, if care is not taken would not allow colleges of education in Nigeria to sustain continuous growth, could deter manpower development to work and genuine aspiration of the people to develop. It can also reduce the output of the student’s intake, affect the strategies of development, affect the productivity and the efficiency of performance and create difficulty to more these colleges forward academically.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of technical and vocational education shall be to encourage the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers and learners education. The spirit of enquiry of creativity is a product of intuition or an acquired skill or knowledge. A look at the same decree as to the purpose of technical and vocational education says among others that the purposes of technical education shall be the provision of technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural industrial commercial and economic development. The provision of training to impact the necessary skills leading to the production of craftsmen, technicians, technologist, engineers and others skilled personnel who will be enterprising and self reliant.
We should give and produce a multipurpose technical and vocational education as to make the students of technical and vocational education to teach as well as create things, the trainee of technical and vocational education should not only be an intermediate product in the hands of others, but also as a finished product that can re-invest in his own human capital stock skills and knowledge, in other words, the trainee must be given the training that makes him or her not only a seeker but also a creator of jobs.
1.4 Significance of the study
The findings of this study will be of immense use to all those connected with technical and vocational education in schools and nation in general.
The result of the study will help in no small way ion how beast technical and vocational education can be put in action.
The study will also turn a guide to the formulation of an idea school technical and vocational programme geared towards the complete development of the students.
It is envisaged that it would contribute to existing literature on problems of technical and vocational education in schools.
1.5 Research questions
These are some basic research questions, which is to be carried out by the investigator.
- Can inadequate technical and vocational education teachers affect the teaching and learning of technical and vocational education in secondary schools?
- Does technical and vocational education help school children?
- Does poor technical and vocational education give rise to poor learning?
- Does a good technical and vocational education help school children to learn more?
- Can inadequate trained teachers affect the students learning of technical and vocational education?
Based on the research questions above, the following hypotheses are formulated.
- Technical and vocational education helps school children to have balanced educational status.
- Inadequate technical and vocational education teachers do not affect the teaching and learning of technical and vocational education in schools.
- A good technical and vocational education cannot produce technical NCE teacher who will be able to inculcate the specific and technological attitudes and values into the society.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
In order to avoid unmanaged work, the researcher has limited herself to some secondary and tertiary education. The schools include:
- College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin
- Mosogar Physical and Health Education
- Mosogar Grammar School
- Ufuoma Secondary School
- Jesse grammar School
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Technical education: This is the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task.
Vocational education: This is designed to help the learners acquire and develop skills, knowledge and attributes for effective employment or progression in specific occupations
Sustainable development is defined as a process of meeting human development goals while sustaining the ability of natural systems to continue to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depends. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived most strongly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs of future generations of life on the planet. It is a process that envisions a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use continue to meet human needs without undermining the “integrity, stability and beauty” of natural biotic systems. It was suggested that “the term ‘sustainability’ should be viewed as humanity’s target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium (homeostasis), while ‘sustainable development’ refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability.
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