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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦3,000.00

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This research project examines Television viewing habit of Nigeria elites with special reference to Enugu metropolis. Through television, the viewing habits of Nigeria elites are observed. In carrying out this study the survey research method was adopted because of it ability in covering large population of study. The population of the study is consisted of (722,664) seven hundred and twenty-two thousand six hundred and sixty-four and the sample size is (258) two hundred and fifty-eight which was gotten with the application of Yaro Yamani statistical formula. Questionnaire guide was an instrument for data collection which helps in gathering the views of the respondents under survey. The study revealed that television viewing habit of Nigeria elite is of high impact and have positively impacted many people in Nigeria. The study concluded that television help in making increasing the viewing habit of Nigeria elites to a high degree. It is hoped that television exposes the elites and make them to be more recognized by the citizens. The study recommended that there is need for television authorities to source for important elites who will present speeches on television with effective impacts on the viewers. It also recommended that the masses should be continually reminded through television about the importance of television viewing habit of Nigeria’s elites.




CONTENTS                                                                           PAGE

Title page                       –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Dedication                     –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Certification                   –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Declaration           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgements        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract                         –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of contents           –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

List of Tables                 –        –        –        –        –        –        x




1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem        –        –        –        –        4

1.3     Objective of the Study   –        –        –        –        –        5

  • Research Questions –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        6

1.6     Scope/Delimitations of the Study     –        –        –        7

1.7     Limitation of Study       –        –        –        –        –        7

1.8     Definition of Terms       –        –        –        –        –        8



2.1     Review of Concept/Opinion    –        –        –        –        9

2.1.1  Overview of Television as a

Medium of Communication –  –        –        –        –        9

2.2     Review of Empirical Studies   –        –        –        –        15

2.3     The History of the Nigerian Television       –        –        17

2.4     Uses of Television         –        –        –        –        –        –        18

2.5     Factors Responsible for Television Viewing

Habit of Nigeria Elites   –        –        –        –        –        19

2.5.1 Political Factors    –        –        –        –        –        –        19

2.5.2 Economic Factor   –        –        –        –        –        –        22

2.5.3 Education    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        25

2.5.4 Government Intervention         –        –        –        –        –        27

2.5.6 Foreign Cultural Influence       –        –        –        –        29

2.5.7 Increase in Population and Need for Information           –        29

2.5.8 Technological Factor      –        –        –        –        –        31

2.6     Theoretical Framework –        –        –        –        –        31

  • Cultivation Theory –        –        –        –        –        –        32
  • Spiral Of Silence Theory –        –        –        –        –        32



3.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.1     Research Design   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.2    Population of the Study –        –        –        –        –        34

3.3     Sample Size/ Sampling Procedure     –        –        –        35

3.4     Description of Research Instrument –        –        –        36

3.5     Validity of the Research Instrument –        –        –        36

3.6     Reliability of research instrument     –        –        –        37

3.7     Method of Data Collection      –        –        –        –        37

3.8     Method of Data Analysis        –        –        –        –        38





                                 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.0      Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.1     Data Presentation          –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.2     Discussion of Findings  –        –        –        –        –        46




5.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        48

5.1     Summary    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48

5.2     Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        49

5.3     Recommendations         –        –        –        –        –        –        50







1.1     Background of the Study

The tendency, most of the time especially in the developing countries, is for media practitioners to package their media contents well.  In doing this, they do not take into consideration their supposedly diverse audience. This may be as a result of professional ignorance or perhaps taking the audience for granted. But taking the viewer, listener or reader for granted today is very costly on the part of the communicators.

In same vein, may be the level of our development still makes the media operators in each of the sectors not to care much about the programme requirements of the various audience for example, the programmes contents of some of our television stations do not take care of the heterogeneous viewing public. This implies that each audience has specific reasons for tuning into a particular programme in fact their media expectations seem to be diverse as their psychographic variables.

To attain the ultimate goal of communication which has to do with meeting audience needs, ensuring their continuous patronage and profitability, the satisfaction of the audience must be guaranteed through result- oriented, popular, diverse and professional packaged programme contents. To achieve this, the true nature of the audience must be known.  This possible through audience segmentation- that is the dissection into specific needs and their characteristics.  This is a must for communicators whether in advertising, public relation, broadcasting etc. it is very essential as the availability of information is been needed.

With the society becoming more complex every day, different need are bound to exist with people from different backgrounds- education  social, culture, economic, ethnic language  political and religious different, media needs must prevail. No one can meet such needs through mere guesses or trial.  Agee, etal (2005) put it this way “Unsystematic, informal, intuitive method is no longer adequate for the modern communicator for so many reasons”

It is also in the interest of media operators to consider this. The stiff competitive environment the media are involved today means the media operators must be professionally ethically and profitably minded.  To ensure this, the practitioners must embrace audience research in order to clearly understand the desires of the audience.

“In some studies researchers are seeking to determine the motivations for media use in others the goal is to determine the gratification people derive from  the media”, said Agee etal (2005).

Okunna (2004) supports this: Through the use of gratification research, communication scholars have shown that everywhere, people selectively expose themselves to mass media contents, choosing only these media message that would serve the functions of satisfying or gratifying their needs”

This is the situation at a time, information and communication have assumed new dimension in global scheme of things.  It is today almost the fourth essential need of man, after food, shelter and security.

Communication, whether through radio, television, newspaper, magazine or internet is today central to the survival of man for man’s optimal, functionality, he requires daily dosages of information, irrespective of his area of profession.

When man’s goals of media patronage are met, he reciprocates, by aiding the funding of media contents through advertisement and sponsorship.  In turn the media make profit reinvest and thereby boost the economy.  The present poor performance of the Nigerian foundations manifested in over – centralized location, poor funding, inefficient personnel, besides the poor quality programmes coming from them.  This has resulted in gross imbalance and pardon of the actual needs of the audience, which of course is a sight.

So, what are the present situation needs of the television viewership in Enugu, efforts of the local and international stations to meet them, and translate the viewer desires into profit.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

Modern communicators can no longer afford to be insensitive to the wishes of today’s audience their successes and failures are directly linked to their packaging of functional and result oriented programmes in tune with the demands of the audience.

Evidences abound to the effect that television broadcasting stations available to Enugu viewership are insensitive to this fact.  This is bound to have impact on their viewing habits.


1.3     Objective of the Study

          The above problem must be solved for improved and qualitative television programmes for the Enugu viewership.  The objectives of the study are to:

  1. To ascertain television station available to audience in Enugu.
  2. To find out if the programmes of the television are qualitative enough to meet their needs.
  3. To ascertain the factor determining the audiences choice of programmes.
  4. To find out if the available programmes are impactful to the audience of Enugu.
  5. To find out their chance for improvement if need be.




1.4     Research Questions

  1. How varied and result oriented are the television stations available to the audience in Enugu?
  2. Are the programmes of the television stations qualitative enough to meet audience needs?
  3. What are the factors determining the audiences of programmes choice?
  4. How impactful are the available programmes to the audience?
  5. What are their chances for improvement, if need be?


1.5     Significance of the Study

The study will also be of immense help to the researcher in knowing more about the television viewing habit of Nigeria elites and its importance to humanity. It will also serve as a research material for other researchers and students from various disciplines who may wish to carry out a research of this nature. It will also suggest and proffer solutions on how to solve problems arising from television viewing habits of Nigeria elites.

1.6     Scope/Delimitations of the Study

          The scope of study covers television viewing habits of Nigeria elites. The study will go further to include the core concept of television, reasons for the viewing Habit of Nigeria Elites, uses of television, factors affecting television viewing habit of Nigeria elites among others.


1.7     Limitation of Study

The researcher encountered a lot of difficulties. Indeed, obtaining information of this project was not easy due to the following reasons.

  1. Lack of Adequate Funding: Carrying out a research work of this nature and magnitude, requires substantial amount of money, even in the present face of economic hardship being experienced in the country. Thus, lack of adequate funding in moving around the state in carrying out the research imposed some problems.
  2. Time Factor: The greatest limitation of this study or research was the inadequate time for the researcher to cope with the trend of study. The write-up has to be carried with either with family commitments or demand of the work place, and studies of wide course like public administration.

1.8     Definition of Terms

Elite: a selected group that is superior in terms of ability or qualities to the rest of a group or society.

Television: a piece of electrical equipment with a glass screen, which shows broadcast, programmes with moving pictures and sound.

Viewing: the ability to see something or to be seen from a particular place.

Communication: the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.

Mass media: refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

Television program: is a segment of content intended for broadcast on television.

Audience: is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter at work of art, literature, theatre, music, video, games or academics in any medium.

Television viewing habit: refers to the amount of time an individual spends viewing television programmes.



Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings                
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.