THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE PREVENTION OF POLLUTION IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRY
Over the years there have been stories of notorious oil spillages in the Niger Delta regions of the country, deposition of deadly industrial wastes into the seas at Lagos Lagoons and beaches, deposition of Biological and medical wastes in the Nigerian sea borders etc. which have led to death of sea and land animals including man in most cases as well as other environmental hazards; yet the perpetrators’ of such dastardly acts are most times not apprehended or adequately punished.
Such situations and occurrence as described above has high degree adverse effect on nature generally either on short term or long term basis.
Therefore prevention of such situations from occurring is best advocated for instead of control and management.
It is to this extent that only high technological expert systems such as Maritime information systems with accurate data processing, storage, retrieval and simulation as well as precise results and outputs can be used in effective protection of the Maritime environment and prevention of pollution occurrence in the country.
The research design employed in this work was a survey descriptive type in which means, frequency and percentages all in a tabular format were used in the analysis of data gathered from the respondents encountered in the process. The respondents used in the study were made up of 15 senior staffs and 33 junior staffs gathered from 5 departments of the Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA) Lagos.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CONCEPTUAL REVIEW: INFORMATION SYSTEM AND MARITIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS
2.1 Information System
2.2 Inter-relationships of Information Systems in Various Fields of Endeavour
2.3 Types of Information Systems
2.4 Components of Information Systems
2.5 Information System Development
2.6 Marine Information Systems (Maris)
2.7 Roles of Maritime Information System in Coastal Protection
2.8 Integration of Maritime Information Systems in Pollution Prevention
Marine Pollution and Prevention in Nigeria
2.9 Marine Pollution
2.9.1 Types and Major Global of Marine Pollution
2.9.2 Major Marine Pollutants – Metals
2.9.3 Major Marine Pollutants- Solid Waste
2.9.4 Major Marine Pollutants – Biological
2.9.5 Sources of Pollution from Land
2.9.6 Sources of Marine Pollution in Nigeria
2.9.7 Impacts of Marine Pollution
2.9.8 Cost of Marine Pollution
2.10 Solutions to Pollution
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Instrument for Data Collection
3.4 Method of Administration of Research Instrument
3.5 Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS
4.1Research Question One
4.1Research Question Two
4.2 Research Question Three
4.3 Summary of Findings
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Background of the Study
Countries with small populations and higher levels of development may cope with globalization better, but they cannot afford to opt out of the mainstream forces that are shaping the world. There is, however, no doubt that economic and socio-political discontentment leads to existential discontent for populations who feel that they are marginalized either as individuals in their own societies or as nations unable to cope with the economic crises (Saighal, 2003). ICT is spearheading the current stage of globalization, which is proceeding further with fragmentation of the social state, and national governance, with wider consequences for national, regional and international security matters. Hence, the resurgence of the phenomenon of maritime piracy in contemporary Africa, the consequence of which negatively impacts on the continent’s rubrics, fabrics and ramifications of security: economic, social, political, commercial, energy, environmental, humanitarian, investments, developmental, revenue, etc, is the stepchild of both local and global explanations, and dimensions which calls for urgent attention.
The development and application of risk assessment and management techniques to maritime security must take into account the complex regulatory and operational context in which the maritime industry operates. The purpose here is not to propose new security-risk assessment models, but rather to point out some of the deficiencies of the existing ones in the broader perspective of the supply chain approach to maritime security. More specifically, the paper introduces an initial security risk assessment and management framework capable of reflecting the logistics scope of transport networks. The focus is to shift the subject of maritime security from the current agenda of facility-security to an extended framework of supply chain security. The document also reviews existing approaches to measuring transport security compliance costs and funding schemes adopted by industry and governments in order to finance the costs of security regulations. While advocating the adoption of any particular security measure is not within the scope of this analysis, the paper nevertheless not only argues that the new international security regulatory framework is a challenge, but also an opportunity to be seized. Although the new security requirements impose an additional regulatory burden on all concerned parties, security-driven business practices and operational procedures have the potential of improving efficiency and trade competitiveness.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Maritime security is, indeed, a quandary (Uadiale and Yonmo, 2010a). The disintegration of central government authority, the lack of maritime security has, therefore, become a grave problem. The Horn of Africa and the Gulf of Guinea are thus symbols of “the few cases in Africa where security onland have spilled over and affected maritime security severely”. The lack of maritime security in the region and the fact that it was not possible to enforce the law and maintain good order at sea, threatened maritime communication, maritime sovereignty and stimulated piracy. While much of the insecurity mid-wifed, piracy of the Somalia coast stems from the collapse of governance, and law and order in Somalia, in the Gulf of Guinea, the situation is somewhat different. Maritime piracy in the Gulf of Guinea is more directly politically driven. In Nigeria, politics onland directly result in offshore actions, causing the hub of insecurity onland in the Niger Delta region to spill into the Gulf of Guinea to promote bad order at sea. According to the maritime watchdog – the International Maritime Bureau (IMB), the waters of Nigeria are now the second most dangerous in the world, next to Somalia. The proliferation of piracy in the West African region has been of concern amongst government and the oil industry since 1999. With militant groups turning pirates in the Niger Delta, claiming that they are sabotaging the oil industry for political purposes in protest of the mismanagement of Nigeria’s oil wealth. However, these political grievances are increasingly taking on a criminal nature (Uadiale and Yonmo, 2010a).
1.3 Significance of the Study
Information Communication Technology (ICT) refers to several forms of information exchange between two or more devices like computers, mobile PDAs and hi-tech devices through which any of the several methods of interconnection, principally through the Internet can be initiated to perform a defined task. These technologies provide speedy, inexpensive, secure and convenient means of communication.
Therefore, in developing countries Nigeria precisely, the impact of ICT in the maritime sector for maritime operations and security cannot be over emphasized.It is as a result of this that this research study is determined to assess the impact of ICT on security of Maritime operations.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to assess the application of information systems in the prevention of pollution in the maritime industry.
1.5 Research Questions
- How can information systems be used in the prevention of pollution in the maritime industry?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Information systems cannot be used to prevent pollution in the maritime industry.
Hi: Information systems can be used to prevent pollution in the maritime industry.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
- Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the application of information systems in the prevention of pollution in the maritime industry with rivers port as a case study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Maritime: This is connected with the sea, especially in relation to seaborne trade or naval matters.
Pollution: This refers to the presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.
Information and Communications Technology: This refers to an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications.