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The study sought to examine the effect of employee motivation in organizational performance in Flour Mill Company in Calabar. A survey study methodology was used, and a random sampling technique was used to pick thirty (164 respondents) from the Flour Mill Company, Calabar Plant in Cross Rivers State. However, only one hundred and twenty (120) people answered to the survey. The study was guided by research questions. The questionnaire served as the study’s tool. The acquired data was examined using the Chi-square statistical technique and basic percentages. The study’s findings demonstrated that rewards do influence employee job performance at the Flour Mill Company’s Calabar Plant. Employee performance at Dangote Cement Flour Mill Company, Calabar Plant is also affected by staff motivational factors. Based on the facts above, it was concluded that employers can encourage their staff with minimal resources that do not impose a significant financial burden. And that thinking outside the box mindset will assist management in seeing that money does not always equate to happy employees, and money is not the ultimate motivator for maximum job performance. The report recommends, among other things, that the industrial industry build a solid rewards management system for employees in order to enhance morale and motivation and achieve better results.

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Title page

Approval page




Table of content


1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope of the study

1.8 Definition of Terms


2.0 Introduction of the Chapter

2.2 Conceptual Framework

2.3 Theoretical Framework of the Study

2.4 Empirical Review

2.5 Summary of the Chapter


3.1 Introduction of the Chapter

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sampling and Sample Size

3.5     Data Collection Instrumentation and Validation

3.6     Techniques/Method of Data Analysis

3.7     Limitation of Methodology

3.8     Summary of the Chapter


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Presentation and Interpretation of Data


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations


Appendix I

Appendix II




                                                CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background to the Study

An individual’s or organization’s level of motivation is typically tied to their desire for success. It is often recognized that an employee’s motivation is important in enhancing productivity and effectiveness. Employees must execute optimally in order for businesses to attain peak performance. Highly motivated employees are commonly regarded to perform better on the job. Employees in developing countries, such as Pakistan, are more likely to perform when they receive recognition from management (Tehseen and Hadi, 2015). Acknowledging their successes can result in intrinsic rewards, which encourage and drive workers to reach their maximum potential. Prior studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between job performance and employee motivation.

The environment, motivation, ability, effort, and skill all affect an employee’s performance. The process that animates, sustains, and guides a person’s behavior toward an organization’s objectives is known as motivation. By starting activity when it’s appropriate or necessary and stopping it when the objective is accomplished, this technique controls behavior. It is important to remember that even with ability, skill, and effort, excellent performance may not always result from motivation. Thus, motivation plays a crucial role in worker performance.

The process of motivation began with a human desire that leaves a void in the person. An internal driving force is created in an effort to fill the void, and it initiates and maintains a series of actions and reactions. That’s when the vacuum is also filled in. Given this context, Nnabuife (2009) defines motivation as the internal or external force that generates the willingness to carry out an action through to its completion. Since an individual’s internal motivation is the driving force behind this initial motivational factor, we have chosen to refer to it as internal motivation. The company uses external motivation, which is the second factor. This is a result of employees’ motivation to identify with the company in order to have their diverse demands and preferences met. They will never stop impeding the organizations’ ability to operate smoothly until they are located and appropriately gratified. One of the soft skills of human resource management, which is currently a prominent trend in global management, is the ability of managers to inspire their subordinates (Stúblo, 2008).

Since workers comprise any organization’s workforce, they are an essential component of the enterprise. An organization is only as good as the people who work there, according to Aluko (2014). This means that motivated individuals are likely to have good morale since they will perform better and be more productive, which will raise overall organizational performance levels. Managers must therefore constantly look for ways to ensure that their staff members remain motivated if they want to attain high levels of productivity and enhance organizational performance or productivity. This is due to the fact that low employee motivation lowers production, which is detrimental to the effectiveness of the company and its long-term profitability. Employee productivity was described by Jennifer and George (2006) as the amount of work an organization’s workforce puts in to achieve its goals and objectives. A staff can be motivated in a variety of ways to increase organizational productivity.

Armstrong (2001) divides employee motivation into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic. Workers who derive their motivation from internal reasons are inclined to behave in a specific manner. It happens when the participants in the activity lack obvious external motivations. These elements include “obligation (feeling that the action is necessary and having control over one’s own resources), self-sufficiency (freedom to act), extension to utilize and generate aptitude and interest in testing work, acknowledgment and advancement opportunities.” According to Mazoor et al. (2019), most firms use a variety of HR tactics and practices in order to motivate their employees. To accomplish their objectives, organizations commonly use reward management systems and employee participation in decision-making (Güngör, 2011). The system of rewards includes both intrinsic (such as social advantages and flexible work schedules) and extrinsic (bonuses, income, recognition, and praise) benefits (Skaggs et al., 2011). Reward management systems help businesses draw in, keep, and motivate employees to perform at a high level (Liu et al., 2008).

A number of factors, including training and career development opportunities, the workplace, the employee-manager relationship, job security, and the company’s overall policies and procedures for rewarding employees (compensation) can all have an impact on an employee’s performance, according to Hafiza et al. (2011). The incentive that results from rewards is one of the most important aspects that influences employee performance (Carraher, Gibbson & Buckley, 2006). Iqbal et al. (2012) state that the goal of employee motivation and their ability to work together to engage in each other’s performance and in the challenging tasks that the manager assigns them is to achieve maximum productivity. Researchers these days are mostly focused on improving working abilities, productivity, and perfection. In the past, employee demands and desires have been given greater weight in studies. For managers who aspire to maximize production and productivity, motivation is one of the most crucial terms in psychology. They approach this well and provide their staff with better motivation. Additionally, it fosters greater collaboration between managers and staff and increases their sense of accountability. Additionally, they should push their subordinates to take on their obligations head-on, assist in supervising other employees, and keep an eye on their output. In order to maximize productivity, assign work based on an employee’s working ability and inspire them to engage with their work to the fullest extent possible (Ali, Abrar, and Haider, 2012).

Maintaining human potential, which acts as the organization’s framework, and consistently improving member performance are essential to its success (Oluoch, 2013). Since other resources are rarely significant without people, human capital is the source of performance that would enable growth and development in businesses (Muda, Rafiki, and Harahap, 2014). It takes more than just saying “thank you” or bestowing phony praise when a boss acknowledges an employee; it also entails demonstrating empathy for them. Employees need to know that their efforts are valued and that they are more than just things (Stajkovic, 2000). It is impossible to overestimate the significance of employee acknowledgment for performance since it encourages employees to willingly use their full range of skills for excellent work. They won’t be as hesitant to use their skills and knowledge since they won’t be as self-conscious. Given the influence of reward on organizational outcome, this study examined the correlation between employees’ motivation and organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The majority of businesses and organizations, particularly those in the manufacturing sector, have failed to acknowledge the significance of motivation as a concept. Intrinsic motivation can be found in things like employee well-being, relationships with managers and coworkers, organizational policies, etc., or extrinsic motivation can be found in things like career development and training, favorable working conditions, remuneration, and promotions, among other things that boost employee performance and organizational productivity levels. Employee productivity levels have comparatively decreased, which has been recognized as a subject of growing worry in the area of business and management research. As a result, this has continued to represent significant managerial worries for decades (Akerele, 2001). However, a number of other factors, including inadequate infrastructure, leadership styles, organizational culture, and inadequate strategic and structural changes in decisions and executions, may also contribute to or even cause a fall in productivity. An employee’s efficacy and efficiency at work can be increased by motivation from sources like manager relationships, employee well-being, fair pay, promotions, and positive relationships with coworkers. This is due to the fact that positive working connections foster cohesion and provide employees with a sense of acceptance and belonging, all of which enhance productivity and performance. Workers who have these kinds of relationships both inside and outside the workplace are typically more productive and effective in carrying out their jobs. As a result, businesses should arrange social events to foster peace among staff members and attempt to unite them (Jibowo, 2007). The ideal course of action for a company is to give appropriate working conditions that enable its employees to meet or beyond expectations and a variety of incentives to boost engagement, output, and productivity. Therefore, this study will attempt to investigate the effect of employees’ motivation and organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of employees’ motivation and organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar. The specific objectives are to;

  1. Identify the influence of intrinsic rewards on organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar.
  2. Ascertain the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment among the employees of Flour Mill, Calabar.
  3. Determine the extent to which staff motivational factors affect organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar.
  4. Proffer solutions to the challenges associated with motivation and organizational performance among manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will be used to achieve the above objectives:

  1. Does intrinsic rewards influence organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between motivation and organizational commitment among employees?
  3. Does staff motivational factors affect organizational performance in Dangote Cement manufacturing company?
  4. What are the solutions to the challenges associated to motivation and organizational commitment among the employees in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis will be tested in the course of the study;

H0: Intrinsic rewards does not influence organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar.

H1: Intrinsic rewards do influence organizational performance in Flour Mill, Calabar.

H02: There is no significant relationship between motivation and organizational commitment among employees.

H2: There is a significant relationship between motivation and organizational commitment among employees.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The various facets of worker motivation and organizational effectiveness in Nigerian manufacturing companies will be highlighted in this study. The study’s conclusions will specifically help managers of businesses, whose job it is to enhance workers’ productive skills and attributes in order to maximize organizational performance, choose which motivational techniques to use.

As a significant flour producer in Cross River State and abroad, Flour Mill, Calabar stands to gain from the study’s conclusions. It will inform them on the effectiveness of employee growth and motivation, and it will also provide suggestions for staff training and policy development.

This research aims to bridge the gap in the literature on rewards in the manufacturing sector by examining the opinions of employees about their organization’s reward strategy and determining whether or not Nigerian manufacturing sector workers regard intrinsic rewards the most.

This study is significant since it sheds light on employees’ preferred forms of compensation.

When this study is finished, the results will be used as a resource for academics and future researchers. It will discuss the obstacles that workers face due to a lack of motivation and how these issues can be resolved for long-term organizational success.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The motivation of employees and organizational performance in Nigeria are the subjects of this study. This study’s content will encompass how Nigerian manufacturing companies perceive and address employee motivation issues within their diverse organizations. It will be great to conduct the study across the entire federation because it centers on the entire federation and addresses a dynamic challenge with a national perspective. It becomes imperative for the researcher to focus on the Flour Mill, Calabar Plant premises in Cross River State. Key information for the research will come from the company’s employees and management.

During the inquiry and interviews, certain difficulties arose, such as the need to obtain textbooks for the work’s literature and photocopy pertinent papers. Time constraint: There wasn’t enough time to complete the study, which made it difficult to combine it with the class’s curriculum.

A few employees at Flour Mill in Calabar refused to answer questions; this resistance was caused by their conceit, arrogance, fear of stirring up trouble, and misperceptions about the purpose of the study. As a result, these constraints might have had an impact on the caliber of the data gathered; however, the data were effectively gathered and impartially analyzed to meet the study’s objectives.