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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦3,000.00


Title Page                                                                               i

Certificate                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                             iii

Acknowledgment                                                                   iv

Table of Contents                                                                  vi

List of Tables                                                                         ix

List of Figures                                                                       x

List of Plates                                                                          xi

Abstract                                                                                 xii


1.1    Introduction                                                                  1

1.2    Aims and Objective of the Project                                 3

1.3    Justification of the Study                                             4

1.4    Scope of the Project                                                      4

1.5    Proposed Methodology                                                  5


2.0.   Literature Review 

 2.1   Preamble                                                                       6

2.2    Structure of Interlocking Paving Blacks                       7

2.3    Various shapes of Interlocking Paving Blocks              10

2.4    Laying Patterns                                                             13

 2.5   Manufacturing of Interlocking Paving Blocks               16

2.6    Materials Involved                                                        17

2.6.1 Granite (Stone Dust)                                           17

2.6.2 Cement                                                                        18

2.6.3 Interlocking Stone Treatment after Production            20

2.6.4 Water                                                                            20


  • Procurement of the material components                    22
    • Equipment used in interlocking paving stone

         production                                                                    22

  • Mix Ratio                                                                      23
    • Determination of the Quantities of Materials               24
    • Sieve Analysis  of the Material                                      24
    • Experimental Tests                                                       25

3.6.1 Compressive strength test                                   25

3.6.2 Flexural Strength Test                                                 26


4.0.   Analysis of Result and Discussion                               29

4.1.   Material Tests Performed on the Materials and

Samples                                                                        29

4.2.   Material Tests                                                               29

4.3.   Determination of Quantity of Materials                       30


5.0.   Conclusions and Recommendations                              38

  • Conclusions                                                                  38
    • Recommendation                                                          39

References                                                                    40


Table 4.1: Composition of Constituent Material Per

Each Shape                                                          32

Table 4.2: Sieve Analysis Result for Quarry Dust                 33

Table 4.3: A Compressive strength result for the interlocking

paving stones                                                        34

Table 4.4: Flexural strength properties of interlocking paving

blocks produced in laboratory                               35

Table 4.5: Showing Flexural Strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                   35

Table 4.6: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                   36

Table: 4.7: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                   36

Table: 4.8: Showing Flexural strength properties of interlocking

paving blocks produced in laboratory                   37


Fig 2.1a:   Small element pavement structure                      8

Fig 2.1b:   Load spreading in the small element top

layer through shear forces in the joints               8

Fig 2.3a:   Categories of Block shapes                                  11

Fig 2.4a:   Types of laying patterns for concrete tiles            14

Fig 2.4b:   Types of laying patterns for burnt clay bricks

and   concrete blocks                                            16

Fig 4.1:     Particle size distribution for quarry dust             43


Plate 1: Bubble Glover Interlock Tiles

Plate 2: Didalo Interlock Tiles

Plate 3: Double T Interlock Tiles

Plate 4: 3 Star Interlock Tiles

Plate 5: Land Roman Interlock Tiles

Plate 6A:  Crushing of the materials in progress

Plate 6B: Crushing of the materials 


         Interlocking paving stone is a good surface material produce as a result of mixture of aggregate to produce a good workability surface.

         This research work investigates on how the shapes affect the strength after production. The materials used include cement, sharp sand, quarry dust or granite dust and water.

         The structural engineering properties investigated include compressive strength, flexural strength of each types of interlocking paving stone produced that is 3 Star, Double T, Land Roman, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles respectively. The mix ratio of each stone was also investigated as well as the rate of crushing of the paving stone were noted.   

        So, from the observation made from this project the average strength of the interlocking paving stone was found to be 5.7gN/mm2 and the highest strength received was found to be that of Bubble glover with a maximum strength of (6.39 N/mm2). While that of Double T (5.59N/mm2), 3 Star (5.39N/mm2), Land Roman (5.30N/mm2) and Digalo (5.19N/mm2)        


  1. Introduction

Researchers have work on various materials for paving and method of pavement construction that will provide adequate support for traffic load with minimum construction cost and maintenance. The concept of interlocking stone pavers dated back over 200years ago to the Roman empire where over 800,000km of roads were built using interlocking paving blocks. The roman developed a simple system for building roads some of the roads are still in use today. The roads were constructed with a well compacted base of lime and gravel covered with a tight fitting cut stone which produced an excellent and economical roadway that remained virtually maintenance free in all types of weather (Wilford, 1994).

The elements are laid directly on a bedding sand layer with edge restraints to allow block layer to develop limited load spreading capacity to keep bond together at great mass and strength (Wilford, 1994).

Investigation has not been intensified on the use of paving stone for pavement unlike surface dressed concrete pavement structures. The potential of different types of paving stone for pavement structure used as car park or foot paths.

In developing countries paving stone are used for the construction of paved area on a large scale. The material use in paving stone are of different variety of colours and shapes which are most likely have effect on the strength of the stone, they create unique and creative pattens while providing a surface that is durable and functional (Akinyemi, et al, 1992).

It is observed that various shapes of these paving stone are produced and widely used in our locality. These include: roman, zenith, double T, 3 star etc. And the laying pattern include, stretcher, running, digalo, bubble glover, diagonal, Herringbone and parquet bond but in lieu of this, different materials and mix ratio are used in order to determine various strength  and durability of the paving material. (Shackel, 1990).

Some use dust from quarry with sharp sand and granite of specified size while others prefer using stone dust with granite only but the most commonly used are dust from quarry only. During laying some prefer placing the elements over a graded sand base and interlocked with bedding and joint sand. The jointing sand allows the pavers to interlock and structurally function as one durable layer while others use dust (Sambawa, 2010).

All those variations in materials and production account for variations in properties, quality and strength and it is therefore necessary to carry out a research work to know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength.

  1. Aim and Objectives of the Project

The aims of this project is to determine the followings:

  1. To determine the strength of the stone
  2. To know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength
  3. To educate student on what they can lay their hand on after graduation.
    1. Justification of the Study

Due to the versatile indestructible nature of paving stone or tiles, they have been used for about every conceivable application such as residential and commercial garage floor etc. There is need for indepth study of this interlocking paving stone as to why the sudden crack or breakdown of the stone pavers.  

  1. Scope of the Project

The scope of this study include, the following:

  • The use of cement, quarry sand, sharp sand and water for the production of the interlocking paving stone.
  • The mix ratio used in this project is ratio 1:4 to produce a certain no of interlocking stone of various shapes these are Roman, 3 star, double T, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles were used as an example in the project
  • Also the various laboratory test carried out in this project are compressive strength test, flexural strength, particle size distribution or sieve analysis.   
  1. Proposed Methodology

To achieve the above aim and objectives of this research work, the following steps were taken:

  1. Procurement of materials
  2. Preparation of mould
  3. Laboratory tests on the materials
  4. Production of the interlocking paving stone
  5. Curing of the stones
  6. Determination of the strengths
  7. Analysis of the results