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THE EFFECT OF MARRIAGE SEPARATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN: A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN MUSHIN LGA OF LAGOS

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Abstract

The study sought to examine the effect of marriage separation on academic performance of school children in some selected junior secondary school in Mushin L.G.A Of Lagos, Nigeria. Specifically, the study was aimed at identifying the effects of separation and divorce on the academic performance of students in secondary schools. Students from broken homes suffer a lot of psychological and emotional disturbance which leads to academic and social backwardness in schools. Insecurity and un-ruling attitudes of step parents to these students leads them to steal items that do not belong to them in schools. The study was anchored on Social Learning theory and Attribution theory as it is concerned with divorce-related behaviors, particularly in terms of how it affects students. It used survey research method and questionnaire was administered to two hundred (200) students through a questionnaire.The random sampling method was used. The study found out that students schooling were negatively influenced. However, no significant difference was found on the basis of age group. In view of the findings, it was recommended that marital counselling should be established to assist couples experiencing instability and guidance and counselling should be established in schools to educate them on the need for compatibility in marriage and to help children from that family cope with school situations.   

                                                    TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page………………………………………………..……………………………………ii         

Certification…………………………………………………………………………………..iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………….……iv    

Dedication………………………………………………………………………….………….v            

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………….…….vi                                                                                              

Table of content…………………………………………………………………………….vii-viii

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                      

INTRODUCTION                                                                                        

1.1   Background of the study            ……………………………………………………………………..1

1.2   Statement of the problem……………………………………………………………….….3

1.3   Purpose of the study…………………………………………………………….………….4           

1.4   General Question……………………………………………………………………….…..5

1.4.1 Research Questions…………………………………………………………………….…..5

1.5   Research hypothesis……..………………………………………………………….……..…5

1.6   Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………6                        

1.7   Delimitation and Scope of the Study.………………………..…………………………….…6

1.8   Operational Definition of terms…………………………………………………………….7

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                          

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                                       

2.0   Introduction……………………………………………..…………………………………..8

2.1   Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………………….8-29        

2.2   Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………………….29         

2.3   Empirical Literature Reviews………………………………………………………………31       2.4 Appraisal of Literature Review …………………………………………………………………….34

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                       

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                          

3.1   Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..36

3.2   Research Design…………………………………………………………………………..36

3.3   Population……………………………………………………..………………………….36

3.4   Sampled and Sampling Techniques………………………………………………………………..36        

3.5   Research instruments……………………………………………………………………..37          

3.6   Validity of Instrument…………………………………………….………………………37                    

3.7   Reliability of the Instrument………………………………………………………………38                                                         

3.8       Method of Data Collection……………………………………………………………..38               

3.9 Method of Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………38

CHAPTER FOUR  

 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1   Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..39                                                                                     

4.2   Results………………………………………………………………………………….….39

4.3    Discussion of Findings……………………………………………………………………42                                

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                     

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION                

5.1 Summary……………………………………………………………………………………46

5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………..46

5.3 Implication of the Study…………………………………………………………………….46

5.4 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………..46

5.5 Limitation of the Study……………………………………………………………..………47

5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies………………………………………………………..…….47

References                                                                                                    

Appendix   1                                                                       

                                          CHAPTER ONE

                                                 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The depreciating quality of education in Nigeria and the breeding of graduates with very low intelligent quotient (IQ) have resulted in serious setbacks to the development of the country. Among the biggest puzzles facing educational institution in Nigeria is the rise of divorce and their impact on children’s academic performance. Recently, the investigations of the factors that influence academic performance of school children have attracted the interest and concern of teachers, sociologists, counselors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators in Nigeria (Imtionde; Aluede & Oboite, 2008). This is because of the public outcries concerning the low standard of education in the country. While many scholars have identified divorce and single parent as a key determinant of student failure to concentrate in learning, little is known about what exactly lead to this failure of concentration (Amato, 2001; Babalis, 2011).

Generally, marriage separation implied that one of the partners was guilty of some transgression in the marriage such as adultery and physical cruelty, but later, a number of other transgressions are added such as abandonment, habitual drunkenness and mental cruelty, making divorce easier to effect. Some consider divorce as an unmitigated evil, while others see it as social maturity. The experience of the human race, however, seems to accept that divorce cannot be considered as right or wrong, but must be taken as a phenomenon that occur between two people and cannot be generalized. Different factors are capable of influencing the academic performance of students across all forms of education especially secondary schools. Such factors may be the student’s internal state (intelligence, state of health, motivation, anxiety etc.) and their environment (availability of suitable learning environment, adequacy of educational infrastructure like textbooks and well-equipped laboratories) (Imtionde et al, 2008).

Most case of marriage separation or divorces usually leads to anxiety, depression, substance abuse, to some children, and others have led to delinquent behavior and teen pregnancy by the girls. Sometimes, the children even make suicide attempts. It has been noted by Clinicians and Therapists that the children caught in the middle of the parents‟ animosity during separation or divorce proceedings have attention and concentration problems; academic problems; anger problems and sleep disorders. Some even have bedwetting and bowel problems. The consequences of these include indiscipline in schools and low level of educational standard. Good parental relationships required to enhance excellent performances of their children in school are influenced by parents’ marital status: married and living together or divorced and geographically separated (Ebong, 2015; Igbinosa, 2014). Therefore, it behooves the parents to find ways to mediate and minimize the destructive effects on their children.

According to new encyclopaedia Britannica (1992), the role of both the father and mother is very important in the life of a child. In Nigeria, distinction is made between a biological parent and a social parent, with the former birthing the child and the latter, raising the child and acting as mother and father in affective form. Under whatever parental condition, the child needs harmonious relationships to be able to function normally and properly in the society. In other words, if the parents are competent and loving in child rearing, it follows that such parents are a bonus to the child’s healthy growth. The quality of parental relationship has been found to be significant to the social and harmonious development of the child. This was why (Oladapo, 2002) suggested that marital instability is associated with anti-social behaviours and other emotional disturbances in children. Makinde (2003) noted that children from unstable families are deprived of parental attention, which may lead to negative effects such as delinquency, truancy and dropping out from school. He further explained that they are unhappy and helpless victim of parental mistakes on which they have little or no control over such destinies.

Extant relevant literatures indicated that there is an awareness of the importance of the home environment (which may be caused by divorce) or family on student’s academic performance. The home has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic state. In the view of (Ajila & Olutola, 2007), the state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life. This is because the family been the first station of the child and also the background and context of a child affect his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. Although, the school is responsible for the experiences that make up the individual’s life during school periods, yet parents and the individual’s experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and making the child what he/she is. It is therefore, not out of place to investigate the effect of marriage separation on academic performance of school children.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

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