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THE EFFECTS OF QUALIFICATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

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ABSTRACT

The study was designed to find out if the qualification of the Social Studies teachers has direct or indirect bearing on the performance of the students in Social Studies. The topic was built on the assumption, apparently shared by most people especially our educational policy makers, that any fluent speaker or native speaker of Social Studies automatically becomes an effective Social Studies teacher. Three secondary schools within Nsukka were selected for the study. Questionnaires were distributed to the students, teachers and principals in the selected schools. The responses were analyzed using simple statistical methods. The study found out that teachers qualifications do affect students performance. Recommendations were made on how to improve on the quality of teachers already in the classroom.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ achievement in social studies is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (1999) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of students’ achievement in social studies. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in social studies. This report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).

          Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE). The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). In Enugu State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).

          Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic achievement. For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teacher’s qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. While Adeniji (1999), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (1999) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive achievement and Bilesanmi (1999) and Okonwa (1999) found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement in mathematics.

          Coonery (1990) opined that students do not understand social studies when it is taught by an ineffective teacher. Izumi and Evers (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in social studies to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Teaching and learning of social studies depends to a large extent on teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. While the present study sought to examine the effects of qualification of social studies teachers on the performance of secondary school students in external examinations.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          The objectives of the study are to find out the following:

1.      To examine the effect of qualification of social studies teachers       on the performance of secondary school students in external   examinations.

2.      To determine whether teacher’s qualifications aids the   performance of students in social studies in junior secondary          school examinations.

3.      To appraise the adequacy of facilities and equipment available        in teaching social studies in junior secondary school.

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.      What is the effect of qualification of social studies teachers on         the performance of secondary school students in external   examinations?

2.      Does teacher’s qualifications aid the performance of students in      social studies in junior secondary school examinations?

3.      Does the adequacy of facilities and equipment available aid   effective teaching social studies in junior secondary school?

1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0:    Teacher’s qualifications do not aid the performance of students       in social studies in junior secondary school examinations.

H1:    Teacher’s qualifications do aid the performance of students in         social studies in junior secondary school examinations.

1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          This study will help to throw more light on the students poor academic performance in social studies so as to be appraise the problems and prospects of the study is significant because social studies is the basic antidote for interaction between man and his environment. It is the researcher sincere hope and wish that this little contribution will be of immense benefits to motivate their interest towards the study of the subject in schools.

          Government is likely, to benefits immensely from this study since the recommendations made in the later part of study would highlight the areas that need to be given more attention in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools.

          The result of the research work would undoubtedly enable the social studies teachers to improve their teaching method and effective use of teaching aids. It will also emphases the needs for students to show more interest in the subject.

1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          This study focuses on the effect of qualification of social studies teachers on the performance of secondary school students in external examinations. This study is carried out in selected schools in Nsukka local government area.

1.8    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          There is no study undertaken by a researcher that is perfect. The imperfection of any research is always due to some factors negatively affecting a researcher in the course of carrying out research. The limited time has to be shared among many alternative uses, which includes reading, attending lectures and writing of this research, also distance and its attendant costs of travelling to obtain information which may enhance the writing of this study was a major limitation.

1.9    DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.      Study Habit: A well planned and deliberate pattern of study    which has attained a form of consistency on the part of the    students towards understanding academic subject and passing     examination.

2.      Academic Performance: This is used interchangeable with   academic achievement. It refers to student’s scores arising   from their responses to some set of learning tasks presented in          a test or examination situation.

3.      Syllabus: Syllabus is a guide or planned topics, which the      teachers uses to teach the students, with in the school year.

4.      Field Trip: Field trip are sometime called excursion. They give         the students the panoramic view of what they have been     learning in the class.

5.      Library: Library is a room or building for a collection of books,          kept therefore reading. The school library is an important        department in the school which helps to promote on inclemency the growth of their knowledge.

6.      Qualified Teacher: This is a person that undergoes series of          training in methodology of teaching and be able to change or         promote study performance.

7.      Teaching Method: This is different methods used by teachers        to promote students learning towards a particular subject.

8.      Motivation: This is the arousal of student’s interest in learning

9.      Museum: This is a building in which objects of artistic, cultural,        historical or scientific interest are kept and show to the public.

10.    Teaching Aid/Instructional material: There are objects or     material which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help   the teacher to communicate more effectively. 

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