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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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Nigerians Take #EndSARS Protest To Police Headquarters, Other States –  Channels Television




Title page

Approval page




Table of content



1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Research questions

1.4        Objective of the study

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope of the study

1.7       Definition of terms



2.1 introduction

2.2 conceptual review

2.3 empirical review


3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis



4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation



It is no longer news that for couple of weeks now Nigerian youth from all works of life and across the divide have been rocking the street clamoring for the dissolution of the special anti-robbery squad (SARS) in Nigeria (#EndSars). It is in view of this that the researcher intend to examine the prose and the cones of the #ENDSARS protest in Nigeria. A survey sampling method is adopted for the study. The researcher randomly select 300 protesters as the population of the study. The observation, interview and questionnaire was employed as the method of data collection and a percentage method of analysis was employed for easy understanding and simplicity. At the completion of the study, it was found out the #ENDSARS protest open a new leaflet on the awareness level of Nigerian youth that power belongs to the people, it was also found out the youth were clamoring for an all inclusive governance.



  • Background of the study

In Nigeria the saying police is your friend is now considered a fallacy among the Nigerian youth. Nigeria is a land full of promises and it is evident that ordinary citizen thinks the policeman is anything negative, and not a friend (Omilana, 2019). The Nigeria police force (NPF) like any other Police forces all over the world are state authorities vested with the responsibility on law enforcement and maintenance of order in the society. In carrying out their functions, the police may be authorized to use reasonable force when the need arises. The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the Police Act, international conventions, professional ethics and other statutes regulate and as well constrain the use of force by police in discharging their statutory functions. Despite these regulations, the police in many societies resort to using extreme force beyond limits as permitted by law in discharging their duties and in the process grossly disregard of the rule of law and resorted to killings extra-judicially, torture and subject civilians or citizens to all sorts of inhumane and ill-treatment; unfortunately, the same citizens that they have earlier sworn to protect (Segun, 2016). Unlawful or extrajudicial killings, as it implies refers to killings outside the dictates of the law and the recent upsurge in the menace, torture, degrading and inhumane treatment of citizens in the society by the officers of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) reveals a need for the appraisal of the criminal justice system so as to prevent judicial usurpation and a lack of reverence for constituted authority which could result in the complete breakdown of law and order (Bakare, 2018). Pursuant to the objective of bringing to a fore the depth of the unlawful killings by the officers of the Nigerian Police, most especially the unit known as the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) in Southwestern states of Nigeria. In the same vein, several instances on extra-judicial killing activities of Officers of the SARS need to be examined in the region. The Nigerian citizens are rough handled, mishandled and brutalized in various ways through; beating, shooting indiscriminately, maiming and killing of citizens, unnecessary restrains such as handcuffs and leg chains, unnecessary use of firearms against suspects and innocent members of the public, torture of suspects in order to forcefully excerpt confession and extortion of gratification (Human Rights Watch, 2020). However, a large portion of these cases are concealed by the Nigerian Police officers in their stations, evidence is destroyed and proof of any such acts is also hidden from the public (Taiwo, 2018). This is actually pursuant to the fact that the victims’ family members many a times would be denied justice when they seek a redress in court of law. Unfortunately, there have been numerous criminal charges brought and public protests against the Officers of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) of the Nigerian Police in recent times. High numbers of innocent civilians have been unlawfully killed and eliminated by drunk and trigger-freaked SARS police officers in Lagos, Ogun, Oyo and Osun States respectively (Segun, 2016). The said SARS officers would storm any location; it could be checkpoints on inter-state roads, beer parlous, cinemas, club houses and host of others to enforce unlawful arrests in the name of looking for “yahoo-yahoo boys” or internet fraudsters and criminals in the states (International Centre for Investigating Reporting, 2018). The #EndSARS protests across Nigeria have led to the notorious police group’s dissolution. Yet announcements of a new tactical police force has created doubt about a commitment to meaningful police reform, and justice for victims of violence by SARS officers. Teniola Tayo (2020) describes the campaign and the importance for Nigerian citizens, asking whether the nation expects an end to police brutality. Couple of weeks back, Nigeria has been described as being in the middle of a revolution. Nigerian youth are finding their voice for the first time and assertively taking a stand against police brutality. Spread throughout Nigeria and on social media from 8 October 2020, the #EndSARS protests reached all six geo-political regions, as well as in countries with large diaspora populations like the UK, US, Canada and Germany. (https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2020/)


Oct. 20, 2020, will forever be known as Black Tuesday in Nigeria. In a darkness broken only by the blue light of cellphone screens, the sound of gunshots rang out as the army and police fired into a crowd of young people who had gathered at Lagos’s Lekki toll gate to protest the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), a notoriously abusive arm of the police.  The massacre at Lekki punctuated more than two weeks of protest of police brutality in Nigeria. The hashtag #EndSARS began trending (again) on social media on Oct. 4. The immediate trigger was a video that showed a SARS officer shooting a young motorist in Ughelli, in Delta state, then pushing his body out of the car and driving off with the dead man’s Lexus SUV. Within days, crowds of young people gathered in Nigerian cities to demand the abolition of SARS. It is no longer news that the special anti-robbery squad has been disbanded, but the emergence of SWAT in less than 48 hours further provoked the anger of the protesters as they deem the disbandment and emergence of SWAT as a mare change of name from the Notorious SARS to SWAT. It is in view of this that the researcher intend to examine the prose and the cone of the End SARS protest in Nigeria.


This study has one main objective which is divided into general and specific objective, the general objective is to examine the prose and the cones of the End SARS protest in Nigeria, the specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the economic effect of the End SARs protest in Nigeria
  2. To ascertain if there is any significant impact of the End SARS protest in ameliorating police brutality in Nigeria.
  • To examine the effect of the use of political thuggery on protesters safety in Nigeria
  1. To proffer suggested solutions to the identified problem

The following research questions where formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study,

  1. Is there any negative economic effect of the End SARs protest in Nigeria?
  2. Is there any significant impact of the End SARS protest in ameliorating police brutality in Nigeria?
  • Does the use of political thuggery on protesters has any effect on the safety in Nigeria?

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study

H0There is no negative economic effect of the End SARs protest in Nigeria

H1There is a negative economic effect of the End SARs protest in Nigeria

H0There is no significant impact of the End SARS protest in ameliorating police brutality in Nigeria

H2There is a significant impact of the End SARS protest in ameliorating police brutality in Nigeria


It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance to civil society organization who act as a watchdog against government excesses, the finding will also be of great importance to the police service commission who are saddle with the responsibility of recruiting, training and retraining of police officers as well as appointing, promoting, demoting, discipline and firing of haring police officers as the study seek to explore the effects of police brutality in Nigeria. The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further studies. The study will also be of great importance to student, teachers, academia’s, researchers and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also add to knowledge.


The scope of the study covers the End SARS protest in Nigeria the prose and the cones, but in the course of the study, there are some factors that limit the scope of the study:

AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.



The Special Anti-Robbery Squad was a Nigerian Police Force unit created in late 1992 to deal with crimes associated with robbery, motor vehicle theft, kidnapping, cattle rustling, and firearms.

Nigeria Police Force

The Nigeria Police is the principal law enforcement and the lead security agency in Nigeria with a staff strength of about 371,800. There are currently plans to increase the force to 650,000, adding 280,000 new recruits to the existing 370,000. The NPF is a very large organization consisting of 36 State commands grouped into 12 zones and 7 administrative organs.

Police Brutality

Police brutality or excessive use of force by law enforcement can be legally defined as a civil rights violation, where law enforcement officers exercise undue or excessive force against a subject.


A protest is a public expression of objection, disapproval or dissent towards an idea or action, typically a political one. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows: Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.



Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings                
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.

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