Spread the love


| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦4,000.00


This study is set to theologically investigate ethical issues in biblical teaching on love, forgiveness and reconciliation as practiced in Christ Apostolic Church Odi Olowo District of Lagos State. The debate and discussion on love, forgiveness and reconciliation has recently received much attention, not only in our contemporary society but in the church of Christ today. Today’s ethical issues are still compounded with the old ideologies that held our founding fathers back from the inner peace that emanate from forgiving, reconciling and loving one another. Leading to the persistence danger of moral chaos, religious conflicts, and agitation for power even in the house of God. The study is set to evaluate the disparities between biblical ethical issues as practiced in the old and new testaments. The teachings of Jesus Christ in the new testament towards love, forgiveness and reconciliation. “With all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love, eager to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.” (Ephesians 4:2-3). The study concludes that, we are to be ambassadors for Christ, ministers of the reconciliation that has been entrusted to us.


Title page





Table of Contents


1.1       Background of Study

1.2       Statement of Problem

1.3       Purpose of Study

1.4       Significance of Study

1.5       Scope and Limitation of Study

1.6       Research Methodology

 1.7      Definition of Terms



2.1       Ethical Concept of Love.

2.2       Ethical Concept of Forgiveness.

2.3       Ethical Concept of Reconciliation.

2.4       Biblical Ethical lssues and the Contemporary Church


3.1       Old Testament concept of Ethics.

3.1.1    Ethics in the Pentateuch.

3.1. 2.  Ethics in the Prophetic Teaching.

3.2       New Testament Concept of Ethics.

3.2.1. Jesus Teachings on Ethics.

3.2.2.   Ethical Issues in the Early Church.

3.2.3.   Pauline Epistle on Ethics.


4.1       Brief History of Christ Apostolic Church Odi-OLowo District.

4.2      Old Testament Ethics and its Impact on C.A.C Odi- OLowo           

4.3      The Impact of Christ Ethical Teaching on C.A.C. Odi – OLowo.     

4.4      The Impact of the Early Church’s Ethics on C.A.C. Odi – OLowo.

4.5.      The Effect of Pauline Ethical Teachings on C.A.C. Odi- OLowo.



5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation



                                                   CHAPER ONE


1.1 Background of Study

Christian ethics has always been about living out the joy of God’s ordinances, manifested in Jesus Christ, in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us (Romans 5:8 KJV). God demonstrated his love for us yet the Christendom today is highly rated with unethical behaviors such as lack of love, abuse of privileges, cunny behaviors, lack of trust, dishonesty, and lack of forgiveness. Even when forgiveness and reconciliation remain a highly esteemed values within the Christianity fold. God understands our weaknesses and forgives our sins upon our confession. He knew that we would not always be able to keep his commandments. And while God never lowers his demands to our level, he does provide forgiveness for us. (Geisler, 2010; p. 312).

Christianity anchors on merciful love; yet without the relation to truth, love fails to serve life and healing (Arms, 2002, pp. 108-110; Allender & Longman, 2004, p. 17). Referring to biblical texts (Mth 5:43–48; Lk 6:27–38), Christianity puts great emphasis on love towards all people, even towards enemies. Where sin appears and causes harm, damage or conflict, believers are encouraged to forgiveness and reconciliation. This challenge is often explained within sermons, pastoral dialogues, articles in Christian magazines, lectures, prayers for inner healing, or within the religious family devotions. There are numerous health benefits when engaging in the process of forgiveness; examples of some of the benefits are a reduction of negative thought processes and emotions (Worthington 2006).

The Bible still carries ethical instruction for Christians today, as expressed in (2 Timothy 3 v 16): “All scripture is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work”.

1st John 4 clearly states “Love one another”, this has long been a common slangs among Christians and even those that don’t practice Christianity.  Love one another is said by almost every person on Earth at some point in their lives. According to (1st Corinthians 16:14) “Do everything in love.” The word love was made to connect those around us with feelings of joy and happiness. “My command is this: Love each other as I have loved you.” (John 15:12).

Love stands for more than just romantic attraction or strong feelings towards those close to you; it also stands for the truth, respect, and obedience Christians hold for God. The word “love” is used interchangeably with the words “light” and “word.” He uses these words to help both believers and non-believers understand what love looks and feels like, and how it acts and sounds. Love stands for more than just romantic attraction or strong feelings towards those close to you; it also stands for the truth, respect, and obedience Christians hold for God.

“If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing.” (1 Corinthians 13:2).

Love is recognized, in Matthew’s account of the ‘righteous’. When the Son of Man commends the righteous for having given him food and drink, for having welcomed and clothed him and visited him in prison, the Son of Man is referring to the ethical practices that characterize the Kingdom. Jesus then adds, ‘Then the righteous will answer him, ‘Lord, when was it that we saw you hungry and gave you food, or thirsty and gave you something to drink…’ (Matt 25:37ff).

Stanley Hauerwas, (2007) comments on the above passage, ‘Jesus provides food for those without food solely because they are hungry. Herod provides food for those who are not without food as a demonstration of his power…. There is, therefore, a Christian way to feed the hungry that can be distinguished from those who feed the hungry for purposes beyond the feeding itself.

Forgiveness is a way of life that takes time. It encompasses words spoken and unspoken, emotions felt and overcome, and actions offered and refused, all three in a complex interrelation, and you can’t presume that only one of the three is sufficient. Forgiveness is a way of life that involves the refusal to engage in the actions of vengeance. No matter how appropriately felt, no matter what words might have been spoken, they refuse those actions of vengeance, or even the actions that simply express an outrage that can’t find any other means of outlet.

Reconciliation on the other hand begins with a process, it is words; it is emotions; it is actions. It is all of these in a complicated interrelationship, which should represent a way of life of a believer. One of the major factors that have ridden Nigerian societies of peace and development is conflict (Nwaomah, 2011). In practical theology forgiveness plays an important role (especially in counselling), but a dogmatic-ethical view on forgiveness should be regarded as fundamental. It is crucial to understand the biblical principles and norms concerning forgiveness before applying them in our relationship with God and fellow human beings. Macaskill (2005:1) points out that the lack of any consensual definition of forgiveness is a serious weakness in research literature as forgiveness is at the core of Christianity. This study is therefore an attempt to comprehend a biblical understanding of ethical issues on the teaching of love, forgiveness and reconciliation.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The Church is the community of people called by God who, through the Holy Spirit, are united with Jesus Christ and sent as disciples to bear witness to God’s reconciliation, healing and transformation of creation. Today, schisms and secessions have become parts of the history of the church and it is bringing dirt to Christendom. Due to doctrinal practices, leadership problems, different interpretations and manipulations of prophetic gifts and so on. Church Politics, disloyalty, oppression, tussle for leadership power and divisions seemed to have characterized the Nigerian churches today. The crises are getting out of hand and many unbelievers watch with keen interest the ugly situations. The body of Christ is one and so the fruit is one. Thus, the scripture in (John 17:23) admonish those who do accept the Christian faith to live in unity and love.

Christian religion provides norms indicating that forgiveness is good and that religious people should forgive, and it would make sense that religious people have more positive attitudes towards being forgiving and should want to be more forgiving.

1.3 Purpose of Study

The primary aim of this study is to investigate ethical issues in biblical teaching of love, forgiveness and reconciliation. The specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the root causes of hatred, envy and unforgiving spirits in Christ Apostolic Church Odi Olowo District.
  2. To analyze how working in love can aid church growth in Christ Apostolic Church Odi Olowo District.
  3. To outline the impacts of biblical ethics in a believer’s life
  4. To proffer possible solutions to the challenges facing the church on lack of love, forgiveness and reconciliation.

1.4       Significance of Study

This study will be of significance benefit to the following:-

  1. This research work will assist churches, ministries, pastors, etc in restructuring the concept of biblical ethics to foster love, unity and Church growth.
  2. It will help Christian from different denominations to get a clearer picture of God’s kind of love and understanding the benefits that follows such practices.
  3. The findings will reveal the root cause, the effect and the appropriate way of solving the ethical issues in relation to biblical teachings and guidelines.
  4. It will enable or help the church leadership to know the peculiarity and the efficacy of leading by example within and outside the church premises.
  5. It will serve as a reference material for future studies related to the subject matter.

1.5       Scope and Limitation of Study

The study on ethical issues in biblical teaching on love, forgiveness and reconciliation is broad in nature, but the study will project ethical issues as practiced in Christ Apostolic Church Odi Olowo District. In the courses of this study, there were some constraints which tend to hinder the flow of the study, these include;

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also a major hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to lay hands on several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Members Reluctance: In most cases the members of Christ Apostolic Church Odi Olowo District, often feels reluctance over providing required information required by the researcher. This results in finding information where the interview conducted could not point out.

1.6   Research Methodology

The research methodology has to do with a procedure or an established method of doing something. Hence, the research has to do with careful study of the subject matter to unfold new ideas of fact so as to advance knowledge, solve problem, produce literature and grow the understanding of the researcher on the specific issue.

The research methodology in this regard will require reading relevant books and literature to extract facts that are needed for the subject of ethical issues in biblical teaching on love, forgiveness and reconciliation.

Therefore, the research methodology shall be based on the following sources:

The research materials are based on journals, articles and publications available at Christ Apostolic Church Theological Seminary library and online.

The researcher’s personal library which includes notes.

Interactions with the church leaders, ministers and pastors of CAC.

1.7       Definition of Terms

Ethics: Ethics in the Bible refers to the system(s) or theory(ies) produced by the study, interpretation, and evaluation of biblical morals, (including the moral code, standards, principles, behaviors, conscience, values, rules of conduct, or beliefs concerned with good and evil and right and wrong), that are found in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles

Love: “Love “agape” is patient and kind; love is not envious or boastful or arrogant or rude. It does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice in wrongdoing, but rejoices in the truth. … Love never ends” (1 Cor. 13:4-8a)

Forgiveness: generally forgiveness is a conscious, deliberate decision to release feelings of resentment or vengeance toward a person or group who has harmed you, regardless of whether they actually deserve your forgiveness.

Reconciliation: Reconciliation is generally the restoration of friendly relations, in Christian theology, it is an element of salvation that refers to the results of atonement. John Calvin describes reconciliation as the peace between humanity and God that results from the expiation of religious sin and the propitiation of God’s wrath.

Church: It is an assembly or gathering together of people who believe and have accepted Jesus Christ as their personal Lord and saviour and they converge regularly to promote the course or interest of the kingdom of God in their lives and in the world.

Church Growth: Is the science that investigate the nature, function and health of Christian churches as they relate specifically to the effective implementation of God’s commission to “make disciples of all nations (people)” (Matthew 28:19).


AMSTUTZ, L.S. 2004. What is the relationship between victim service organizaions  and restorative  justice? (pp.  85-93)  In  Zehr,  H.  &  Toews, B.  (eds.) Critical issues in restorative justice. Monsey, New York: Willan Publishing.

ARMS, M. F. 2002. When Forgiveness Is Not the Issue in Forgiveness. pp. 107-128.  In:  Fortune,  M.  M.  &  Marshall, J.  L.  (Eds.): Forgiveness and  Abuse. New York: The Haworth Pastoral Press, Inc.

Geisler, N.L., 2010, Christian ethics, 2nd edn., Baker, Grand Rapids.

Macaskill, A. (2005). Defining forgiveness: Christian clergy and general population perspectives. Journal of Personality, 73, 1237–1267.

Nwaomah, S. M. (2011). ―Religious Crises in Nigeria: Manifestation, Effect and the Way Forward‖. Journal of Sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice, 3.2, 94-104.

Stanley Hauerwas, Matthew(Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible), (Ada, Michigan, Brazos Press, 2007), p. 139.

Worthington, E. L. (2006). Forgiveness and reconciliation. New York: Guilford.