The inefficiency and lack of urban transport services and infrastructure is a major impediment to economic growth and urban productivity in cities of developing countries like Nigeria. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic and social effects of poor road construction in Nigeria. The study is based on a survey research carried out with the distribution of structured questionnaires to households and staff of federal ministry of works in Lagos and Abuja metropolis to elicit information on current condition of infrastructure in the area, household consequential cost due to poor road condition, willingness to pay for improved road condition preferred service option for road infrastructure. Analysis was carried out using descriptive statistical tools. Results from the study shows that urban roads are in a deplorable condition and households suffer a lot of consequential damages arising from it.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
1.1 Background to the Study
Road is an important infrastructure in a nation or community of people. It greatly affects the economy of any nation (Oluwatobi, 2010). Roads must be properly designed and constructed. After construction, they need to be maintained to ensure that the objective of safety, strength and durability are met (Onwubiko, 2010). Failures on Nigerian roads, major and minor, had become a normal thing to the Nigerian populace. Road failure leads to accidents on Nigerian roads (Onwubiko, 2010). Many newly constructed and rehabilitated roads in the country do not last long enough before failure. Roads are built to provide safe passage of vehicles and must be properly designed and constructed. After construction, there arise need for appropriate maintenance for the road to attain its design life and to ensure that the objectives of safety, strength and durability are met. The rate at which roads deteriorates in service ranges from the quality of materials used, workmanship standard and to the quality of design and supervision during the road construction. This paper aims at identifying through previous researches, the economic and social effects of poor road construction in Nigeria. According to Ndefo (2012) “Nigeria has about 200,000 km of roads spread all over the country, these roads are made up of over 32,000 km of federal roads spread over the thirty-six states and the federal capital, over 30,000 km of state roads and over 130,000 km of local government roads”. Within the states, the local government roads are further classified into urban and rural roads. According to ownership, Nigerian roads are classified into federal, state, and local government roads.
Federal roads are divided into federal trunk ‘A’ roads and the federal trunk ‘F’ roads. The federal trunk ‘A’ roads are those under the federal government ownership and they are developed and maintained by the federal government while the federal trunk ‘F’ roads are those that were formerly under the state ownership but were taken over by the federal government with a view to upgrading them to federal highway standards. State roads are classified as the state trunk ‘B’ roads and are under the ownership and management of the various state governments. Local roads classified as the local government trunk ‘C’ roads and are the roads under the ownership and management of the local governments in the country. These roads are divided into the urban, rural and village access roads (Ndefo, 2012; Nnanna O. J., et al 2003)
Transportation encompasses the movement of people, goods and services from one point of origin to destination (Filani, 1993). Transportation is indispensable to modern economic development especially in a developing country like Nigeria. It plays a vital role in shaping the economy of any nation (or region) because modern industries and commercial activities rely on proper, well developed and efficient transport system (Anyanwu, Oaikhena, Oyefusi and Dimowo, 1997). In support of this, Wane (2001), pointed out that transportation is a crucial vector for urban insertion since it gives access to economic activity; facilitate family life, and helps in spinning social networks. Transport is a central dimension of the national and global production systems that are reshaping the world, making it a topic of universal interest and importance. People move from one place to the other, regularly or occasionally. Goods collected, extracted and manufactured, must be distributed from place to place prior to consumption. People who need services, which are generally provided at a limited number of places, must travel in order to access such services. Transport therefore fulfils a very important function in a society and is one of the most pervasive factors in any economy (Munby in Hoyle and Knowles, 2001). Transport plays a crucial role in urban growth by linking and providing access for people to essential services such as education, markets, employment, recreation, health care and other key services that induce growth of towns, cities and metropolis. Enhanced mobility for the poor and vulnerable groups especially in cities of the developing world, is one of the most important preconditions for achieving Millennium Development Goals. Those cities with transport modes in an integrated system are more likely to evolve and prosper as centers for trade, commerce, industry, education, tourism and services (Buis, 2009). The rate of growth of urban centers has called for the need for movement of people, goods, services and information. In order to sustain the growth of urban centers, efficient transportation system is required (Button, 1991). However, the rate of growth of urban centers is related to the rate of movement of people, goods and services, using different means of transportation (Hoyle and Knowles, 1998). Transport developments may lead to changes in the pattern of land use in an urban center around the transport corridors, with more transport intensive uses; including consumer activities locating closer to transport interchanges. Commercial, retail and residential development may be affected. These impacts can be important at a local level but basically affect the geographical pattern of activity rather than the overall level of activity. The effects are therefore, local rather than national or even regional (Planning, Economic and Development Consultants, 2004). There are different conventional transport modes: roads, rail, air, water and pipelines. These modes of transport are all important in one way or the other. For instance, rail is prominent in the transportation of goods, but its relative advantage is limited to long distance bulk movement. Air transport is more efficient in the movement of passengers and high valued goods over long distance. In the case of water transport, its advantage lies in the capacity to carry bulk cargo over long distances at cheaper rates than other forms of transport modes. 3 Roads transport on the other hand, serves other modes of transport as it provides door-to-door services. Schneider (1994) described roads as an integrated system that is made up of nodes and routes. The nodes are towns which associated themselves to the roads, while the routes are the different types of roads. Howe (1984) defined roads as an economic penetrating route which is required to open ways for investment in new activities such as agriculture and commerce. Musa (2003) defined roads as those which are clearly necessary ingredients of nearly every aspect of economic and social development. It links the most remote locations and has been found to be more useful in gathering goods to collection points for distribution and marketing in rural and urban centers. Ajiboye and Afolayan (2009), noted that road transport is the most common and complex network. It covers a wide range, physically convenient, highly flexible and usually the most operationally suitable and readily available means of movement of goods and passenger traffic over short, medium and long distances. This is why attention is often placed on road transport development. Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density, level of service, compactness and density of particular roads. Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Good road projects clearly contribute to poverty reduction by improving the living conditions of people and by augmenting the opportunities available for trade and employment (Onakomaiya, 2012). The economic development of Nigeria has reflected the development of her transport systems. This is particularly true of the road transport system, which is by far the most widely used mode of transport in the country. Filani (2003), noted that the vast 4 majority of transportation in Nigeria is by road. Today, road transport accounts for more than 90% of the country’s goods and passengers movements. This was further reaffirmed by Onakomaiya (2012), that of all commodity movements to and from the sea-ports, at least two-thirds are now handled by road transport, while up to 90% of all other internal movements of goods and persons take place by roads. The potential significance of road development for investment, trade, growth and poverty alleviation has long been recognized. Not only does road transport infrastructure facilitate the direct provision of services to consumers, it also provides intermediate inputs that enter into the production of other sectors and raise factor productivity (Anyanwu, et al., 1997). As such, its role toward enhancing economic growth and diversification cannot be underestimated. Thus, the role played by roads in economic development has motivated government to spend a lot on transport development with huge amount of money budgeted to roads in the transport sector (National Development plan, 1975-1980).
Road construction is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, which has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by some conveyance, including a horse, cart, or motor vehicle (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Road).
Road could be referred to a facility that provide access for the movement of man, goods and services, animals with use of vehicles, motor bikes, horse, carts etc. between two locations. According to CBN (2003), current total road network in Nigeria is about 194,000 kilometers out of which about 17% belongs to the Federal Government (trunk ‘A’ roads), 16% belongs to the State Government (trunk ‘B’ roads), and while the remaining 67% are Local Government roads- trunk ‘C’ roads (see Table 1). World Fact Book of Central Intelligence Agency (2004) has it that out 193200km of total road network in Nigeria, 28,980 km are paved while 164,220 km are not. The unpaved are bad roads. Nigeria has the status of a developing country where road facilities are grossly inadequate to carter for the teeming population of road users (Agbonkhese et al., 2013). However, there are many potholes and detours on most Nigerian roads and this means that vehicles keep breaking down so that on many of Nigeria’s roads emergency mechanics have sprung up to assist stranded commuters sometimes with disastrous consequences. Apart from disrupting the smooth flow of traffic, the dug up roads in the city are also adding to the financial burden on citizens.
According Singh (2008) Roadways are the means of transportation on land. It not only includes the modern highway system, but also the city streets, feeder roads and village roads, catering for a wide range of vehicles and the pedestrians. Transportation by road is one of the best modes which can give maximum service to one and all. This mode of transportation has the maximum flexibility for travel with respect to route, direction, time and speed of travel etc (Gupta, 2009). The passengers and the goods have to be transported first by road before reaching a railway station or airport for further journey. Hence, according Singh (2008) it can be said that out of all types of transport systems, road is nearest to the man. Many types of roads exist around the world, all of which are thoroughfares which can be used by motorized traffic. Different terms are used in different countries for broadly the same design, although there are differences.
- Driveway: Driveway is a type of private road for local access to one or a small group of structures, and is owned and maintained by an individual or group. Driveways rarely have traffic lights, but some that bear heavy traffic, especially those leading to commercial businesses and parks, do.
- Arterial Road: An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver from collector roads to freeways or expressways and between urban centres at the highest level of service possible.
- Highway: A highway is any public or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks. It is not an equivalent term to freeway or a translation for autobahn, auto route etc.
- Expressway: This may be refer to as a controlled-access highway, the highest grade type of highway with access ramps, lane dividers etc for high speed traffic.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Due to its large coverage and ability to provide door to door services, road transportation is most patronized among other modes of transportation especially in developing nations like Nigeria. It was estimated that road transportation carries about 95% of the national passenger & freight services and provides the only access to rural communities where majority of the economically active population lives. Road construction in Nigeria received a major boost in the 1970’s during the “oil boom” era and has since then become a major component of annual capital budgets at both the states and national levels. The national road network grew from its total length of 6,500Km in 1960 to 10,000Km in 1970 to 29, 000Km in 1980 and is presently estimated at 200,000Km. With the corresponding increase in traffic volumes on our roads, characterized by varying composition and axle loads road deterioration and failure are experienced. This ugly development started affecting service delivery to our rural and urban areas. Our road transportation system began to suffer losses due to high operating costs leading to some being grounded. The need to place emphasis on road maintenance started to manifest. Unfortunately the financial and technical requirements for effective maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction became so staggering that the rate of maintenance could not be matched with the deterioration. However, the relationship between road transport and development has been the focus of many studies.
For example, Aderamo (1990) examined road development and urban expansion of Illorin, Nigeria. The author observed that the choice of Illorin as the state capital resulted in its rapid population increase and area expansion. It revealed that the city has four major residential districts which are clearly identifiable on the urban landscape. Illorin, Kwara state has witnessed more physical expansion and opening-up of new road network resulting in the city enveloping many of the smaller settlement around it which makes it more accessible within and outside the city.
Dakyes and Ogbuli (2012) investigated the impact of road transport development on socio-economic development in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. The study concluded that improvement in transportation, especially road development, would no doubt enhance the socio-economic activities of the study area, thereby improving the wellbeing of the people in the area.
Furthermore, Precious (2011) analyzed the effects of road transport development on spatial integration in Kaduna State. The study used different policy regimes between 1960 and 2009 to show road development over four time periods in the state and how it reflected on the movement of the people in the state. The study has also revealed that the huge investment on road development has actually translated into improved accessibility and connectivity, decrease in travel time and travel cost below inflation rates. Ajiboye and Afolayan (2009) examined the impact of transport development on agricultural production in a developing country which focuses on kolanut production in Nigeria. The study revealed that improved transportation would have positive impact on farmers‟ productivity, income, employment and reduce poverty level in the rural areas. Umar (2011) examined the effects of road transport development on food-grain marketing and distribution in Katsina State. The study highlighted the important role that road development plays in integrating, developing and sustaining any economy. The study specifically focused on the relationship between transport planning and the agricultural sector of the economy as essential to any development strategy. Muktar (2011) in a similar study on the impact of transportation on economic growth, reiterated that road transport is an important determinant of the success of a nation’s effort in diversifying its production base, expanding trade and linking together resources and markets into an integrated economy. It is also necessary for connecting villages with towns and market centers and in bringing together remote and developed regions closer to one another.
However, none of these studies included the economic and social effects of poor road construction in Nigeria. Furthermore, Oyo state was not included in some of the national studies on poor road construction to deduce transportation data that will be relevant to the state’s transportation. This study is therefore undertaken to evaluate the economic and social effects of Poor Road construction in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Objectives
The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the economic and social effects of poor road construction in Nigeria. The study has the following specific objectives:
- To evaluate the economic effect of poor road construction in Nigeria.
- To illustrate the social cost of poor road construction in Nigeria.
- To recommend ways of ameliorating the effects of poor road construction in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The study seeks to address the following research questions:
- How has poor road construction affected the country?
- What is the social implication of poor road construction in Nigeria?
- How can the threating effects of poor road construction be curbed in the country?
1.5 Scope of the Study
In terms of spatial scope, the study was designed to cover the road transport in some selected states and region across the country. For better understanding, the content scope of the research was limited to the road transport development in the study area, its social and economic effects on the national development. In order to make the analysis successful, the study the focused on the democratic administrations.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The provision of a high quality transportation system has been identified as a precondition for the full participation of remote communities in the benefit of national development (Camemark, 1979).
Though, there are different conventional modes of transportation system such as: road, air, rail and water. All these modes of transportation are important in one way or the other with road transport serving the other modes of transportation and provides door – door services (Onakomaiya, 2012). The importance of road as infrastructure cannot be overemphasized.
Its efficiency acts as a catalyst for development as such calls for concern. Government of Nigeria over the years has been investing heavily on road transport around the nation and in the state capitals in particular. Thus, an analysis of the effects of road transport on national development will provide an insight in to the worth of the investments.
Furthermore, improving efficiency in to the movement of people and goods can lead to increase in trading, and agricultural activities around the state as well as its concomitant increase in commercial activities and urban growth within the metropolis.
Generally, the main purpose of the study is to come out with the baseline data for better management and planning of road transport network. The research will also be a standard reference in terms of policy generation that will benefit the country and also to help in proposing effective maintenance of roads in order to minimize accidents and traffic congestion in the study area.
Adams J.O. and Adetoro A. E.(2014) Analysis of Road Pavement Failure caused by soil properties along AdoEkiti – Akure Road. Nigeria International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJNREAS) 1(1)
Agbonkhese, O. Yisa, G.L. and Daudu P.I. (2013) Bad Drainage and Its Effects on Road Pavement Conditions in Nigeria. International Institute for Science, Technology and Education, Vol.3, No.10.
Bardet, J.P (1997) Experimental Soil Mechanics, 1st Ed., Prentice Hall, NewJersey, Pg. 172.
Gistmania (2015), Photos from the flood caused by heavy rainfall today in Lagos road, accessed on August 14, 2014, from .gistmania.com/talk/topic248689.0.html
Komolafe, K. (2006). The Shame of the Nigerian Roads. Thisday Newspaper Edition, Nigeria. Retrieved July 26, 2013, from http://www.thisdaylive.com
Momoh, L.O., O.Akintorinwa and M.O.Olorunfemi (2008). Geophysical Investigation of Highway FailureA Case Study from the Basement Complex Terrain of South western Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research,4(6):637-648
Naij news (2014) 47 people Die in Osun Road 8. Nairaland Forum (2011), Traffic Jam at Abuja Roads, retrievable on cdn.pmnewsnigeria.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/07/kugbo-junction-Nyanya-road
Ndefo, O (2012). Causes of Highway Failure in Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol.4 No.11
Nnanna O. J., Odoko F. O., Alade S. O.(2003); Highway Maintenance in Nigeria,Lessons from other countries, Research Department Occasional Paper Series, Central Bank Of Nigeria
Okigbo N (2012), Road maintenance in Nigeria, the way forward. International journal of research in engineering science. Pan African journal series Accra Ghana.
Oluwatobi, S (2010). Investigation into Causes of Failure along Nigerian Roads: A case study of Ibadan – Ife Express way, Unpublished, University of Ibadan
Onwubiko E. (2010), Roads to disaster. Human right writers Association of Nigeria.
Osadebe, C.C., Fakeye, A.M., Matawal, D.S. & Aitsebaomo, F.O. (2013) Road Pavement Failure in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu-Port Harcourt Expressway. 22nd National Engineering Assembly on 20th August, 2013
Ahukannah, L. I., Ndinaechi, G.I., andArukwu, O.N. (2003). Commerce for Senior Secondary Schools. Onitsha: Africana-First Publishers Limited.
Ajiboye, A.O. andAfolayan, O. (2009). The Impact of Transportation in Agricultural Production in a Developing Country: A Case ofKolanut Production in Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Economics and RuralDevelopment, 2(2), 47-57.
Muktar, M. (2011). Impact of Transportation on Economic Growth: An Assessment of Rail and Road Transport Systems. Retrieved April 21, 2012, from http://mustaphamuktar.blogspot.com/2011/01/impact-oftansportation-on economic.html
Onakomaiya, S. O. (2012). Highway Development in Nigeria: “A Review of Policies and Programmes 1900-2010.NISER Monograph Series No.5, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research.
Mallon, R.D. (1960). Transport and Economic Development. Economic Digest. Summer. Retrieved January 1, 2011, from http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/digest/1960/issue2/8-13/pdf.
Filani, M.O. (1993). Transport and Rural Development in Nigeria, Journal of Transport Geography Vol. 1(4), pp.248-541
Filani, M. (2003). Advancing the Cause of Private Participation in the Road Transport Sub Sector in Nigeria, A paper delivered at the 10th Anniversary Celebration of the Associated Bus Company (ABC)Ltd., on May 14, 2003 at Ikeja.
Ighodaro, C.A.U. (2008). Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Revised Paper Submitted for Presentation at the First International Conference on Transport Infrastructure (ICTI 2008), Beijing, China, April 24-26, 2008.
Olubomehin, O.O. (2012). Road Transportation as Lifeline of The Economy in Western Nigeria, 1920 to 1952. African Journal of History and Culture, 4(3), 37-45.
Camemark, C. (1979). Some Economic, Social and Technical Aspects of Rural Roads. Dhaka:ESCAP Workshop on rural Roads. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from www.scribd.com/doc/2423416/Role-of-Transport-in-Economic-Development
Carapetis, S., Beenhakker, H., Howe, J. (1984). The Supply and Quality of Rural Transport Services in Developing Countries. World Bank Working Paper 654. Retrieved January 1, 2011,fromwww.scribd.com/doc/2423416/Role-of Transport-in-Economic Development.