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This study is on sociological examination of single parenthood. Four objectives were raised which included; to examine the undergraduates general disposition to the culture of peace, to determine the extent to which school values influence the culture of peace among the undergraduates in the University of Ibadan, to investigate the students’ attitudes towards the inclusion of peace education as a general course in the university, to ascertain the relationship between school function and values and student academic performance in University of Ibadan. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff from University of Ibadan was selected randomly. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study
- Background of the study
According to Taylor (1871), culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as member of society. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively. Some aspects of human behavior, such as language, social practices such as kinship, gender and marriage, expressive forms such as music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies such as cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies. The concept material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including, practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science make up the intangible cultural heritage of a society. Culture of peace is subsumed under Peace Education. Culture of peace arose at the end of the Cold War. For the first time, the objective for which the United Nations was founded, the abolition of war had become feasible. The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture, UNESCO, had engaged in activities to promote a culture of peace from its beginnings, when it was founded in the Second World War to construct the defenses of peace in the minds of men and women. Culture of peace is a natural phenomenon necessary for all, and very important among undergraduates in the university. A university is an educational institution designed for interaction, examination, or both of the students in many branches of advanced learning, conferring degrees in various faculties, and often embodying colleges and similar institutions. Peace and conflict today was formulated by the International Congress of Peace in the Minds of Men that was held in Africa (Yamoussoukro, Cote d’Ivoire, 1989).in its final declaration, the Congress recommended UNESCO to “help construct a new vision of peace by developing a peace culture based on the universal values of respect for life, liberty, justice, solidarity, tolerance, human rights and equality between men and women. The term “peace culture” was inspired by the 1986 educational initiative Culturadepaz in Peru and by the Seville statement on violence, elaborated in 1986 by scientists from around the world which stated scientifically and categorically that war is not determined by gene, violent brains, human nature or instincts, but was rather a social invention. Therefore, “the same species that invented war is capable of inventing peace.” Thus, the culture of peace is an integral approach to preventing violence and violent conflicts, and an alternative to the culture of war and violence based on education for peace, the promotion of sustainable economic and social development, respect for human rights, equality between women and men, democratic participation, tolerance, the free flow of information and disarmament. Examining school values, School values are standards. They are roadmaps. They are directions. However, we need to understand the concept of value. According to Wikipedia (2014), values can be defined as “…broad preference concerning appropriate courses of action or outcome” values can be seen in two lights. Some values are physiologically directed and are usually considered to be objective. This is because they vary across individuals and Cultures and in many ways are linked with belief and belief systems. Thus, some values are considered general, while others can be culture or belief-determined. As a matter of fact, school values have their root in values. Therefore, school values may be said to be standards set by a school system which governs and controls the system’s operational plans and activities such that these activities are directed towards the mission and vision of the school. As said about values, school values may be culture, belief or intention-based. Therefore, what may be considered as value in one setting may be termed otherwise in another setting and vice-versa. Thus, how school values can be a determinant of the culture of peace in the University of Ibadan among undergraduates in relation to the mission statements to: “be a world-class institution for academic excellence geared towards meeting societal needs, produce graduates who are worthy in character and sound judgment, contribute to the transformation of society through creativity and innovation, “will be further explored.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study centers on the school values among university undergraduates of the University of Ibadan to promote the culture of peace. The culture of peace, if devoid among undergraduates can lead to unacceptable behavior that can impede the mission and vision of the university. Thus, the school values such as: respect for rules and regulation; civil virtue; sportsmanship; and team spirit/ team building among university undergraduates are what this study wants to know if they really guide the conduct of undergraduates to imbibe the culture of peace. Hence, the need for the need for this study seeks to find out how school values have affected the culture of peace among undergraduates in the University of Ibadan. The university uses many devices to bring about peace in its milieu. One of the ways implored to make peace reign in the school is through the values of the school as said. Nevertheless, with much effort in promoting the culture of peace among undergraduates, there are still cases of conflicts, gambling, prostitution, pornography, vandalism, larceny, examination malpractices, assault and other social vices.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is the function and influence of the school value among undergraduate in the University of Ibadan. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;
- To examine the undergraduates general disposition to the culture of peace
- To determine the extent to which school values influence the culture of peace among the undergraduates in the University of Ibadan.
- To investigate the students’ attitudes towards the inclusion of peace education as a general course in the university.
- To ascertain the relationship between school function and values and student academic performance in University of Ibadan.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: School values do not influence the culture of peace among the undergraduates in the University of Ibadan.
H1: School values influence the culture of peace among the undergraduates in the University of Ibadan.
H02: there is no significant relationship between school function and values and student academic performance in the University of Ibadan
H2: there is a significant relationship between school function and values and student academic performance in the University of Ibadan
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study tends to look into the values (civic virtue, team spirit/building, respect for rules and regulations, and sportsmanship) that are considered in the University of Ibadan which contribute to or foster the culture of peace among the university undergraduates. Also, it looks into the cultural beliefs of different students and how the school values have shaped their individual values to fit into the school’s system. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the function and influence of the school value among undergraduate in the University of Ibadan. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Culture is the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people, but different for each individual communicated from one generation to the next. It is a fuzzy set of basic assumptions and values, orientations to life, beliefs, policies, procedures, and behavioral conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) each member’s behavior and his/her interpretations of the ‘meaning’ of other people’s behavior.
Peace is a term commonly used to describe a state of being calm and quiet, a state of tranquility, free from argument, conflict, violence and disturbances. It is an avenue permeated with attitudes that allow people of all ages and all levels to co-habit in harmony.
A university or college student who is studying for his or her first degree: a student at the university who has not yet received a bachelor’s-level degree. Students studying for their first degree are undergraduates in the University of Ibadan. In view of this study, an undergraduate is a student who is studying for his or her first degree (usually entitled Bachelor of Arts [BA] or Bachelor of Science [BSc]).
CULTURE OF PEACE
According to the 1998 UN resolution, the Culture of Peace is an integral approach to preventing violence and violent conflicts, and an alternative to the culture of war and violence based on education for peace, the promotion of sustainable economic and social development, respect for human rights, equality between women and men, democratic participation, tolerance, the free flow of information and disarmament.
Values can be defined as “broad preference concerning appropriate courses of action or outcome.”
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students, under the directions of facilitators. In relation to this study, school means university and that is the University of Ibadan.
School values may be said to be standards set by a school system which governs and controls the system’s operational plans and activities such that these activities are directed towards the mission and vision of the school. For the purpose of the study, examples of school values are: (a) respect for rules and regulation (b) civil virtues (c) sportsmanship (d) team spirit/team building.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.