The study on Impact of Globalization on Management in Nigeria was carried out as Globalization reflects man’s common humanity, a desire to explore and break barriers and to conquer both territory and forces, and to constrain them. It was in the quest for advance in technology so as to reduce the world into a global village, however the world as a unit where several of its parts have come to have close contact and interaction with one another and recognize themselves as sharing a common humanity, it is the result of such process towards achieving efficiency and effectiveness in management, that led to globalization. In chapter one, the researcher surveyed the background of study on globalisation, it also examines the objectives of the study and further went to examiner the significance of the study for effective management.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Scientist will say that the world has existed many millions of years. However, the world as a unit where several of its parts have come to have close contact and interaction with one another and to recognize themselves as sharing a common humanity. Globalisation reflects man’s common humanity, a desire to explore and break barriers and to conquer both territory and forces, and to constrain them.
Today, terms like “Colonization and imperialism” are no longer fashionable to deserve the extension of influence, power and dominance of a stronger nation over the weaker one(s) Globalisation and/or its sister concepts of villagization and Universalism now seem more appropriate to describe the rather asymmetrical relationship between the developed and developing worlds. Sequel to development and reducing the world into a village thereby increasing efficiency and effectiveness in management. It is in fifteenth century with the Portuguese, Spanish and such voyages of discovery, a phenomenon that has come generally to be referred to as globalization.
However, globalization was not handed down from heaven. It was not decreed by the pope, it did not emerge spontaneously. It was created by the dominant social forces in the world to serve an interest which could no longer be realized through colonization as a result of the independence which was rather “awarded” to its beneficiaries (Akindele, 2002)
This study will address globalization as a challenge, with potential for good and evil depending on policy responses and, at the cooperate level, a test of managerial leadership competencies. It is an assured fact that globalisation is irreversible.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Projection of globalisation as an average for Nigeria to overcome the developmental traps that kept it confined to a vicious circle of underdevelopment is in fact, contradictory. Globalisation on management have raised serious debts if these promises are attainable in this Nigeria setting. Rather than emphasized it, globalisation has jettisoned development in management sector. Globalization is a very uneven process with unequal distribution of its benefit and losses. This imbalance leads to polarization between the developed countries that gain and developing countries that lose out (OBADAN, 2001). In this regard, the place of Nigeria in the globalization agenda requires some in-depth study. To begin with, Nigeria s economically weak due to inadequate domestic economic capacity and social infrastructure needed to boost the country’s productivity, growth and competitiveness.
Secondly, the economy is made weaker by mono-cultural dependency and infavourable terms of trade in its export trade as well as excruciating debt and debt service burdens. Thirdly, by (1986), economic regimes were regulated and the country pursued an expansionary fiscal and monetary policy in its development effort (Obadan 1998). The problems were exacerbated by political instability and corruption as a result, investment choices were distorted, which eroded the confidence especially for foreign investors.
Globalization is a dynamic process, the stronger countries are adjusting rapidly as the process advances, while the weaker ones find themselves further marginalized. The Nigerians inability to benefit from internalization is limited by numerous factors which includes poor domestic management of the economy, interest structural considerations of the economy and some policies of western industrial countries. The state of backwardness made Nigeria to be heavily reliant on foreign supplies of industrial inputs such as capital equipments, raw materials, spare parts and other intermediate materials. The challenges now is for Nigeria to use the enormous resources one has built to coherent, internally, consistent self-sustaining economy which will be competitive in the world market. Nigeria must develop the essential physical and human infrastructural to compete.
Nigeria cannot expect to benefit from the process of International Corporation without radical restricting of her economy, policies and society.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to investigate the impact of globalization on management in Nigeria. Specifically, the objective are:
- To examine the impact of globalization on management growth in Nigeria
- To determine the impact of export on the industrial performance in Nigeria
- To assess the benefits of globalization on human resource management in the Cross River State civil service.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: globalization has no significant impact on management output in Nigeria
H1: globalization has a significant impact on management output in Nigeria
H0: There are no significant changes in the income and compensation structure as a result of globalization
H2: There are significant changes in the income and compensation structure as a result of globalization
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The economic relevance of studying the impact of globalization on management in Nigeria needs not to be over emphasized. Globalization has brought rapid change in Nigerian economy that seeks to increase their share of financial and direct investment in the globalization market.
Globalization provides economic independence and triggers competition, stimulating globalization to elevate the living standard of people in the nation that offer themselves to the world trade, “We have moved from a world where the big eat the small to a world where the fast eat the slow” as observed by Klaw Schwas of the Dawob world economic living standard of people have considerably improved through the market growth within the development in technology is not only a steady increasing demands but also it has led to greater utilization. The result of the study will also be significant in the following way:
1. through the help of globalization, there has been easy and accessible communication network which facilitate production, distribution of goods and services both domestically and international
2. Globalization has rapidly improves the social and economic status of women in the developing world. The explanation is based on the fact that in a competitive, globalization world, and the role of women becomes even more valuable.
3. Globalization breaks the regressive taboos responsible for discriminating against people on basis of gender, race or religious beliefs and it is an antidote to the intolerant fundamentalism that appear to oppress million of the world’s poorest, globalization offers hope that one day they may enjoy the fruit of the west liberal tradition.
4. Globalization has help in the reduction of likelihood for war between developed nations. It has also help to increase environmental protection in developed nations. Finally, another factor which is often considered as a positive outcome of globalization is the lower inflation. This is because the market rivalry stops the businesses from increasing prices unless guaranteed by steady productivity. Technological advancement and productivity expansion are two other importance of globalization because since (1970s) growing internationals rivalry has triggered the industries to improve increasingly.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study covers the growth of management through globalization process, because when change is not properly managed, there is the tendency it affects performance negatively which may result in total closure of the organization as it happens to many of the firms in the industry, or loss of valued employees or failure to meet financial objectives of shareholders and may eventually degenerate into customers dissatisfaction who could easily move to other competitors thereby affecting the overall performance of the firm. However the research has some constraints which are;
Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study.
Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: is defined as the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
Globalization: Globalization (or globalisation; see spelling differences) is the increasing interaction of people through the growth of the international flow of money, ideas and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration which has social and cultural aspects as well. It involves goods and services, and the economic resources of capital, technology and data.
Change managements: Change management is a structured approach for ensuring that changes are thoroughly and smoothly implemented, and that the lasting benefits of change are achieved. The focus is on the wider impacts of change, particularly on people and how they, as individuals and teams, move from the current situation to the new one.
Changes in technology: In essence technological change is the invention of technologies (including processes) and their commercialization via research and development (producing emerging technologies), the continual improvement of technologies (in which they often become less expensive), and the diffusion of technologies throughout industry .
Customer’s satisfaction: Customer satisfaction is a marketing term that measures how products or services supplied by a company meet or surpass a customer’s expectation. Customer satisfaction is important because it provides marketers and business owners with a metric that they can use to manage and improve their businesses.
Implementation: is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
Management: Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to those people who manage an organization.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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